Geography in Ukraine
The approx. 604,000 km² state area of Ukraine lies almost entirely on the territory of the Eastern European level, which is why it is included in Eastern Europe. Small proportions are included in Central Europe (the Carpathians and Lviv) and Southeastern Europe (Odessa and the Budschak). Ukraine borders Belarus to the north, Russia to the northeast and east, Romania and Hungary to the southwest, and Poland to the west. The south is bounded by the Black Sea. The Black Sea islands of Jarylhatsch, Tusla and the Snake Island also belong to the Ukrainian national territory. What is disputed is the membership of the Crimean peninsula, which both Russia and Ukraine claim.
On the part of the country belonging to the Eastern European level, there are large lowlands such as the Dnepr lowlands and the Black Sea Depression, particularly in the north and south. In the central part of the country, higher-lying areas extend from west to east. like the Podolian Plateau, the Dnepr highlands or the Donets Plateau. The high plateaus are criss-crossed by numerous smaller and larger rivers, some of which have cut deeply into the terrain. The northwest of Ukraine is known as Volhynia.
Other landscape areas outside the great plain can be found in southern western Ukraine, where the country has a share of the Forest Carpathians and the Pannonian Plain, as well as the Crimean peninsula in the extreme south.
The highest mountain in the country is the Hoverla in the Tschornohora, which reaches a height of 2061 m. The highest point in the Crimea is the Roman Kosch with a height of 1545 meters.
The numerous rivers that cross the country and flow into the Black Sea include the Dnieper, the Southern Bug and the Dniester. In the west, the Danube forms a 54 km long border between Romania and Ukraine. Jalpuhsee, the largest natural lake in Ukraine, is also located here. The largest swamp area in Europe extends over Polesia with a size of 90,000 km².
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Flora and fauna in Ukraine
Large parts of the original vegetation forms of mixed forest, forest and dry steppe were converted to cultivated and arable land. Remains of mixed forests and swamps can be found in the northern parts of the country. The region of the Carpathians in the southeast and the Crimean Mountains are largely still overgrown with forests. The Mediterranean vegetation on the south side of the Crimean peninsula is a special case. Here you will find a variety of shrubs, field flowers, grasses and deciduous trees.
More than 100 species of mammals, 350 species of birds and 200 species of fish live in Ukraine. Predators such as martens, foxes, bears, lynxes and wolves can be found, and ungulates such as deer, pigs, elk and wild sheep still find their habitat in the Ukrainian forests and steppes. In addition to predatory animals and ungulates, there are rodents such as ground squirrels, field mice and hamsters as well as raccoons, beavers and muskrats. Among the bird species, owls, gulls, black grouse and capercaillie and several species of eagles should be emphasized, while migratory birds such as storks, ducks and geese temporarily stay in Ukraine. The numerous fish species in inland and marine waters include carp, pike and sturgeon.
Climate in Ukraine
Ukraine has a predominantly temperate continental climate with warm summers with temperatures between 20 and 25 ° C and cold, snowy winters with temperatures of -5 to -10 ° C. The autumn months are mostly sunny. The climate on the Black Sea coast could be described as Mediterranean. Temperatures in this part of the country usually climb to 30 ° C in summer and drop to -5 ° C in winter.
|Kiev||Min Temperature ° C||Min Temperature ° C||Hours of sunshine / day||Rainy days|
|Dec||-5.6||-1.1||1 ^ 10|
|Lviv (Lviv)||Min Temperature ° C||Max Temperature ° C||Hours of sunshine / day||Rainy days|
|Odessa||Min Temperature ° C||Max Temperature ° C||Hours of sunshine / day||Rainy days|
National parks and nature conservation in Ukraine
Ukraine has a diverse natural landscape and wildlife. After severe environmental disasters such as the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and the 2010 tank accident in the Black Sea, the government has set itself the goal of implementing reforms for nature conservation. For this reason, areas were designated as nature reserves and national parks. These offer great development opportunities for ecotourism. There are the following types of national parks and protected areas: mixed forests, forest steppes, steppes, the Carpathian Mountains and the Crimean Mountains. The last warm temperate primeval forests in Europe exist in the Carpathian Mountains. They have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since July 2007. In the Ukraine, 18 national parks have now been established through cooperation with the Ukrainian Nature Conservation Society.