To put Tanzania on its own two feet (‘self-reliance’) was one of the goals of Julius Nyerere’s Ujamaa policy. However, demand and reality are far apart. Although the aid from abroad also had a positive influence on political reforms and the democratization of Tanzania, Tanzania is still one of the poorest countries in the world.
Hardly any other country has been showered with aid like Tanzania – and with so little success. The term ‘donor economy’ describes an economy that is largely externally financed, which is the case in Tanzania.
According to ehealthfacts, many Tanzanians are trying hard to become employees in one of the international projects. A particularly widespread type of project car became a symbol of professional success in Tanzania’s ‘pajero culture’. The ‘Nikolaus Syndrome’ of the donor on the recipient side has intensified the ‘dependency syndrome’.
The lack of confidence in one’s own abilities, which has a long history due to the slave trade, the colonial times and the sole rule of the CCM, is difficult to overcome.
Years ago, Tanzania set itself ambitious national development goals with the ‘Vision 2025’ (too ambitious, as the political scientist Ernest T. Mallya says).
The development policy MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) could Tanzania not reach all by 2015: too high, the proportion of the population who must live on less than US $ 1 a day, is too high, the maternal mortality and low is the share of people with access has too clean drinking water. However, there is a general mood among the population that significant progress is being made in the various areas. The reasons for this are numerous and are rated accordingly differently by analysts. In the perception of the population there is progress rated quite well, but the urban population is much more positive than the rural population.
The Tanzanian village of Mbola was also selected as part of the Millennium Villages Project (MVP). The balance, however, four years after the project is mixed.
In addition, Tanzania strives to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and to regularly review their status. The SDGs are implemented by the government as part of the ‘ Tanzania Development Vision 2025 ‘ and its five-year development plans. Tanzania is one of eight countries that were part of the Post-2015 Data Test Initiative, which examines the enforceability, priorities and opportunities of the SDGs in countries with different income categories.
The Civil Society of Tanzania (NGOs, associations, self-help groups, etc.) is increasingly involved in developmental processes. It is still comparatively young, but is growing into its role as an effective corrective for business and politics. Since the political liberalization, however, more and more people want to have a say and take responsibility for the development of their communities into their own hands. The list of national and international organizations involved in the country’s development process has reached an impressive scale. The umbrella organization of the Tanzanian non-governmental organizations is the ‘Tanzania Association of Non-Governmental Organizations’ (TANGO). Unfortunately, not all NGOs that recommend themselves as local partners for development programs are civic-minded and oriented towards the common good.
As a stable and politically stable country, Tanzania is one of the central cooperation countries for German development cooperation.
With the improvement in the political and economic framework since the 1990’s, the chances of sustainable success through development cooperation have improved. The focus of German development cooperation in Tanzania are in the field of water supply, waste management, public health and the environment and natural resources. Tanzania is in 30th place on the list of recipients of German development aid for the past 10 years.
The German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), together with the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW), are considered to be key players in German development activities in Tanzania, which are also active in the field of sustainable energy supply.
Many other German actors are involved in international cooperation with Tanzania: for example the Center for International Migration and Development (CIM), the Goethe Institute, the two large German churches (EED / Bread for the World, Misereor), Malteser International, the Sparkassenstiftung and the political foundations (Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, Hanns Seidel Foundation, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Konrad Adenauer Foundation).
The municipal cooperation of individual federal states and German cities with Tanzania also has numerous projects. Since 2010, Lower Saxony has specifically supported projects in Tanzania that tie in with existing structures and expand them further. In terms of content, the focus is on school and vocational education, research (promotion of young talent and research, training and further education of specialists in special needs education, school projects), the supply of renewable energies and agricultural cooperation to strengthen smallholders. The city of Hamburg has also had a city partnership with Dar es Salaam since 2010. In 2016 the German-African Youth Initiative (DAJ)in which German and Tanzanian young people can take part in an exchange program.