Geography in Tajikistan
Tajikistan is a high mountain country that borders Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, the People’s Republic of China and Afghanistan. More than two thirds of the area are high mountains. Almost half of the national territory is at an altitude of 3000 m and higher. The east of the country is dominated by the Pamir Mountains and most of the Pamir highlands. There is also the highest mountain in the country, the 7495 m high Pik Ismoil Somoni. The Alai mountain range extends in the north of the country. South of the Serafschankette in the west lies the Fan Mountains. Only in the far north does Tajikistan have lowlands with part of the Ferghana Valley, which is irrigated by the country’s largest river, the Syr Darya, and which can be used intensively for agriculture. In most of the country, due to the altitude and the relief, only extensive cattle breeding is possible. The largest lake is the Karakul in the east of the country; other large lakes are the Saressee and the Zorkulsee. The largest reservoir is the Kairakkum reservoir on Syr Darja.
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Flora and fauna in Tajikistan
The vegetation of the mountainous country in Tajikistan offers a very varied flora. In the deserts and semi-desert zones that reach up to a height of 600 m, there are particularly drought-resistant plants. In contrast, there are also marshland and forests along some rivers. The forest covered area makes up about 4% of the country. On the other hand, especially in the extreme high areas of the Pamir, there is little vegetation in which mostly only bushes grow. The country also has a surprisingly large variety of flowers, around 5000 different types of flowers are counted.
In the animal world, too, it looks very different and species-rich from a regional perspective. Various species of lizards and rodents live in the desert regions, while deer, wild cats, tigers and jackals feel at home in the forests and regions overgrown with bushes. Brown bears and Pamir sheep live in the lower altitude areas of the Pamir. A little higher up, large golden eagles feel at home in remote mountain regions.
National parks and nature conservation in Tajikistan
Of course there are also national parks in Tajikistan. One of them is the Pamir National Park and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO and covers an area of 2.6 million hectares, which makes up an incredible 18% of the total area of the country. The Pamir Mountains are partly located in the national park and are called the “roof of the world”. Large parts of this mountain range are glaciated. However, the national park offers even more, such as desert, steppe and grassland. In the hard and long winters and cool summers, the special snow leopard feels at home.
The country must always protect its special living beings in their sometimes extraordinary habitats. Rare animal species such as the snow leopard, the Isabel brown bear, the Marco Polo sheep and many rare bird species are particularly protected.
Climate in Tajikistan
Tajikistan has extremely continental weather with cold winters and hot summers. The country has areas with a humid subtropical climate, while other areas can have temperatures of up to 40 ° C. This means that there are large temperature differences within the country. The extremely low amounts of precipitation are remarkable.
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