According to microedu, Jordan is a constitutional monarchy. The ruling Hashemite royal dynasty is considered to be the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. The throne is inherited through the male line. In case of minority of the king, the supreme power may be exercised by a regent or a regency council. The monarch has broad powers in the field of legislative and executive power.
The kings of Jordan and representatives of the Hashemite dynasty were: Abdullah bin Hussein (1921-51), Talal bin Abdallah (1951-52), Hussein bin Talal (1952-99) and Abdallah bin Hussein II, who is now on the throne, proclaimed King of Jordan on February 7, 1999 and crowned on June 9, 1999. King Hussein II received wide recognition from the international community for his participation in the struggle for peace in the Middle East. He made a great contribution to the political and socio-economic development of Jordan.
The country has a constitution. In administrative terms, Jordan is divided into 12 governorates: Amman, Aqaba, Allun, Balka, Jarash, Zarqa, Irbid, Karak, Maan, Madaba, Mafraq, Tafila, headed by governors appointed by the king.
Legislative power belongs jointly to the king and the National Assembly, which consists of two boards: the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has 40 members appointed by the king and is renewed by half every 2 years. Chamber of Deputies with 80 members. Elected for 4 years by universal suffrage (direct and secret elections). The Speaker of the Senate is Zeid al-Rifai, the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies is Hadi al-Majali. According to the Constitution (amendment adopted in 1974), the king has the right to dissolve parliament and rule the country without him for a year, as well as dismiss any of its members.
Parliamentary elections were held in the country in 1989, 1993 and 1997. The 2001 elections were postponed, the next were held in June 2003. Executive power belongs to the king, who exercises it through the government appointed by him – the council of ministers, headed by the prime minister. Ali Abul Ragheb has been the Prime Minister of Jordan since June 2000.
Various parties operate in the country: the National Constitution Party, the Arab Land Party, the Jordanian Democratic Party of Popular Unity, the Al-Umma (Nation) Party, the Islamic Action Front, formed as a result of the merger of all Islamist groups and registered in 1992, the Arab Socialist Renaissance (Baath), which is a regional branch of the pan-Arab party, the Jordanian Democratic Party (Hashd), the Pan-Arab Democratic Movement, the Jordanian Progressive Party, the Jordanian Communist Party, the Constitutional Front.
The Jordanian General Federation of Trade Unions was founded in 1954. The Jordanian Press Association and the Jordanian Bar Association have great influence.
From the beginning 1990s In Jordan, there has been a course towards democratization and liberalization of the economy. She advocates a peaceful resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict, seeks close cooperation with Western states, incl. with the USA.
The armed forces of Jordan consist of the Ground Forces, the Air Force and the Coast Guard, formed on a contract basis. Defense spending in 2001 was 8.6% of GDP, or $760 million. The number of the Armed Forces is 103,880 people, incl. 90 000 people – Ground Forces, 13,400 people. – Air Force and 480 people. – Navy, there are 35 thousand reservists. In service is approx. 100 aircraft and 1180 tanks. 25 thousand people enter the police. The army is distinguished by a high level of professional training and discipline.
Jordan has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (relations with the USSR were established on August 21, 1963).
In the state budget of Jordan in 2001, revenues amounted to 1968 million dinars, of which 87.3% came from domestic sources, the rest from foreign aid. 62.3% of domestic revenue comes from taxes. The expenditure part of the budget is 2192.3 million dinars, 81.6% of these funds fall on current expenses. The state budget deficit in recent years is 2-5% of GDP. Domestic public debt 1369 million dinars (2001).
The banking system of Jordan, in addition to the Central Bank, includes 21 commercial banks. Central bank assets at stake. 2001 reached 4.25 billion dinars, commercial banks – 14.15 billion dinars. The volume of trading operations on the Amman Stock Exchange is 662.4 million dinars.
Jordan’s trade balance runs a chronic deficit (28.5% of GDP in 2001). Value (million dinars) of exports 1351.7; import – 3434.5. In exports, 38% falls on raw materials and agricultural products, 62% on processed products. The main export items are phosphorites and potassium salts, products of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, textile and clothing products, and cement. The main export partners are the USA (12.2% of the value in 2001), Iraq (11.9%), India (10.9%), Saudi Arabia (7.1%). In imports, 52.8% falls on raw materials and semi-finished products, 19.4% – on machinery and equipment, 27.8% – on various consumer goods, its main articles are crude oil, engineering products, food. More than 1/3 of imports by value comes from EU countries, incl. 9.2% from Germany. Other important partners are Iraq (14.1%), the United States (8.2%).
The volume of external debt in 2001 reached 6.7 billion US dollars. In its structure, 56.3% is owed to industrially developed countries of the West, 34.6% to international financial organizations, and the rest to various Arab funds. In 2001, Jordan received approx. $400 million in new loans.
Jordan has been cooperating with the IMF for a number of years, receiving loans and implementing economic restructuring programs aimed at liberalizing the economy, attracting foreign capital, and privatizing the public sector. In connection with the admission of Jordan to the WTO and the entry into force of the free trade agreement with the EU (2002), a gradual liberalization of foreign trade is being carried out.