Brazil is a country of continental dimensions. A nation with immense wealth and natural and cultural diversity, integrated by the same language. The tourism options are also immense, with 26 states and a Federal District, there are charming towns, large metropolises and historic cities. Beautiful beaches, resorts, fascinating rural landscapes and lots of ecological tourism. When Columbus discovered America he was wrong. The Indies, which he sought, were on the other side of the world. In addition, he landed in Portuguese lands, according to the Treaty of Alcáçovas. When Cabral discovered Brazil, for Europeans, he was also unaware of the scale of the feat. It would be just an island in East Asia, like others indicated on maps of the time. However, strategies are not usually written and sometimes remain secret forever. Determining historical facts is not simple, we only know the versions that remain. The history of Brazil is fascinating. Even before European rule, until the transformation into a great nation, united by the same language. Brazil has 7,367 km of coastline. They are beautiful landscapes and beaches from the north to the south of the country. The coast is one of the main tourist destinations for those visiting Brazil and one of the most sought after vacation options among Brazilians. The coast of Brazil is divided by the temperature of the waters: warm in the Northeast, cold in the Southeast and icy in the South. The reason is in the currents. The Northeast is bathed by the great current that comes from the Gulf of Guinea, in Africa. The South is bathed by the great Falkland current, which comes from Antarctica. The two major currents are found on the coast of Espírito Santo.
According to countryaah, Bolivia is one of only two countries in South America without an ocean coast. Much of its territory is in the heights of the Andes, including the capital La Paz (3,660 m). There are about 11 million residents (2016). In the first decades of the 16th century, it was part of the Inca Empire, when these lands were conquered by the Spanish. Independence came in 1825. In 1903, the lands of Acre were bought by Brazil by a treaty in which Ruy Barbosa was against, claiming that such lands would already be Brazilian.
Argentina is a large country with a great diversity of landscapes. From ice fields, to dry areas, mountainous reliefs with plateaus or plains, immense rivers and lakes. Steppe vegetation with woods and jungles. It is a nation of immigrants. At the beginning of the 20th century, Argentina received about 200 thousand immigrants a year. Today, there are more than 43 million residents.
Before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, northern Chile was ruled by the Incas, while the south was inhabited by Araucanian Indians. Although Chile declared independence from Spain in 1810, the decisive victory did not occur until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-84), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia, conquering the present lands to the north. In 1973, Allende’s communist government was overthrown by a military coup led by Pinochet, who ruled Chile until free elections installed a democratic regime in 1990. Since 1980, the country has had a consistent economic policy and high growth.
The Republic of Colombia is a country in South America, bathed by the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. There are 47 million residents (2016). The capital is Bogotá. The current territory of Colombia was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. In 1819, with Independence, the former Republic of Colombia emerged, formed by the current countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. In 1830, that Republic collapsed, giving rise to current countries.
The territory of present-day Ecuador was inhabited by populations of different origins before the Spanish conquest in the early 16th century. It remained a Spanish colony until 1822, when it gained its independence. At that time, it was part of Great Colombia, but it dismembered in 1830, to form the Republic of Ecuador. The capital is Quito.
Guyana (Co-operative Republic of Guyana) is a country in South America, bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of its territory is covered by tropical forests. It has borders with the states of Roraima and Pará. There are 736 thousand residents (2016). The capital is Georgetown. The coast of Guyana was explored by Christopher Columbus in 1498. In the 17th century, the territory was colonized by the Dutch. It became a British possession in 1815. Independence from British Guyana was achieved in 1966.
French Guyana (Collectivité Territoriale de Guyane) is an overseas department in France, in northern South America. Most of the territory is covered by forest. There are 257 thousand residents (2016). The capital is Cayenne (Cayenne). In the early 16th century, the Spaniards explored the coastline of present-day French Guyana and began to colonize it a few years later. Subsequently, the Territory was also disputed by the French and the Dutch. These were expelled in 1676, and the Territory came to be controlled by France. In 1809, the Prince Regent of Portugal D. João, then in Brazil, ordered the invasion of Cayenne, as a reprisal for the invasion of Portugal by Napoleon’s forces. The occupation lasted until 1817 and gave rise to Guyana Portuguesa, registered on the official map of Brazil and America Portuguesa, from 1821. Since 1968, the European Space Agency has used the Kourou Space Center, off the coast of the Territory, for rocket launches.
The Republic of Paraguay is a country in South America. There are 6.9 million residents. The capital is Asunción (Asunción). In the 16th century, the lands of present-day Paraguay were inhabited by the Guarani when they were colonized by the Spanish. Independence was achieved in 1811. In 1864, in search of a way out to sea, Paraguay invaded Brazil, starting the Paraguay War.
Peru is a country in South America, bathed by the Pacific Ocean. The capital is Quito. Ancient Peru was inhabited by the Incas, conquered by the Spanish in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, with the last Spanish forces defeated in 1824. Peru’s economy reflects its geographic diversity. Abundant mineral resources in mountainous areas and fishing in coastal waters. However, the infrastructure is poor. The capital is Lima.
The Republic of Suriname is a country in South America, bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. About 95% of its territory is covered by tropical forests. There are 586 thousand residents. The capital is Paramaribo. Ancient Dutch Guyana was explored by Spaniards in the late 15th century. Its coastline is indicated in the Cantino, from 1502, which seems to register the Suriname River as Rio Grande, mistaken for the Amazon, by some authors, due to the great scale error of that map. This territory was colonized by the Dutch in the 17th century. Independence was achieved in 1975.
For the Uruguay, Brazilian was in good part of its history. Since the founding of Colonia del Sacramento in 1680, it has become the scene of disputes between Spanish and Portuguese. In 1821, it was annexed to Brazil as Cisplatina Province, until its independence in 1828, under the name of Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Uruguay is currently one of the most liberal countries with the best working conditions in South America. The capital is Montevideo. The Oriental Republic of Uruguay has 3.4 million residents (2016). Montevideo is the capital, main port and financial center. The country is divided into 19 departments: Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandú, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San José, Soriano, Tacuarembó, Treinta y Tres. Uruguay has a total area of 176 km², with 660 km of coastline. The border with Brazil is 985 km long. The highest point is Cerro Catedral, with 514 meters. The country’s economy is oriented towards the export of agricultural products. The workforce has a high educational level. The official language is Spanish.
In 1819, with the struggles for the independence of New Granada, Spanish territory in America, the former Republic of Colombia appeared, formed by the present countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama, and chaired by Simón Bolívar. In 1830, that Republic collapsed, giving rise to current countries. Today, Venezuela’s economy is based mainly on oil production. The country has 31 million residents (2016) and the capital is Caracas.