New Orleans, Louisiana

NEW ORLEANS (AT, 145-146). – The most populous and important city of Louisiana (United States), located at 29 ° 51 ′ 45 ″ of lat. N. and at 90 ° 4 ′ of long. O., in the southeastern part of the state, on both banks of the Mississippi, about 177 km. from the Gulf of Mexico. The city proper extends into the portion of land between the river and Lake Pontchartrain, joined together by a canal; on the right of the Mississippi it also includes the town of Algiers and also Westwego (3987 residents in 1930) and Gretna (9584 residents). New Orleans is protected from the waters of the Mississippi by powerful embankments, which saved it from the severe flood of 1927. It has a tropical climate with an average annual temperature of 20 °, 6, with warm winters (January 12 °, 2) and very summers. hot (July 28th, 3): the differences in temperature are very sensitive, ranging from an absolute minimum of −14 ° to a maximum of 39 °. The rains are abundant (1436 mm.), Distributed throughout each month of the year, but prevalent in the summer months. During the months of July, August, September and October, and more rarely in June and November, the city is battered by cyclonic storms, locally called hurricanes. The city, founded in 1718 (see History), has been rapidly increasing in population, rising from 3191 inhabitants in 1769 to 17,242 in 1810, to 116,375 in 1850, to 216,090 in 1880, to 287,104 in 1900, to 339,075 in 1910, to 387,219 in 1920, to 458,762 in 1930, so that in that year it was the 16th city of the Union in terms of population (in 1850 it was in seventh place).

In 1930 the ethnic composition was as follows: Whites born to indigenous parents, 52.8%; Whites born to foreign parents, 14.3%; Whites born abroad, 4.3%. The color element is numerous, accounting for 28.6% of the entire population. The Whites born abroad were 19,681, mostly Italians (6821), Germans (2159), French (1838), etc.

According to Acronymmonster, the topographical plan of the city had to be adapted to the particular needs of the territory: stretched along the left bank of the Mississippi, which here forms a gigantic S, the city is divided into two sections by Canal Street, 60 meters wide, of which the southern it is known as the French Quarter of the Vieux-Carré and the one to the north as the American Quarter. The first still preserves the building and environmental characteristics of the French and Spanish colonial period, with narrow streets: here the ancient Creole families still live, descendants of the first European colonizers. The growing development of the large center has consequently led to the progressive extension of the city to the shores of Lake Pontchartrain, currently crossed in its eastern part by a grandiose bridge, km long. 8. Magnificent parks, rich in tropical plants, they make the environment evocative: the largest and most important are the City Park and Audubon Park; the latter overlooks the Mississippi and is notable for its botanical rarities.

Built almost at the mouth of one of the largest river routes in the world, with a hinterland rich in tropical crops, New Orleans soon became a major industrial and commercial center. The 1930 census employed 204,388 people in various industrial and commercial activities, of which 62,700 in trade, transport and communications, 54,097 in crafts, medium and large industries. The latter employed 19,435 workers in 1910, rising to 29,641 in 1909, to be reduced to 22,592 in 1929.

Alongside the steel and mechanical industries, clothing, printing, shipyards, numerous industries for the processing of imported products are also located in New Orleans, such as furniture, sawmills, sugar refineries, coffee processing, tobacco., spice, squeezing cottonseed, etc.

But the city owes its prosperity to the existence of the port, one of the most important and active in the Union. This extends for about 24 km. along the Mississippi from Southport and Westwego to northwest up to Port Chalmette, 8 km. under Canal Street. The port of New Orleans is accessed via the partially canalized river that flows into the Gulf of Mexico with numerous branches, which begin to diverge in the place called Head of the Passes, 152 km away from the city: the most important mouths for the navigation are Southwest South Pass and Pass à Loutre. An artificial canal (the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal), about 9 km long, which leads from the Mississippi to Lake Pontchartrain, increases the traffic capacity. The port has a total of 89 piers, docks and docks and is not yet crossed by any bridge,

Overall trade in goods was 12.8 million metric tons per year in the period 1921-1930: foreign traffic represents 65.1% of total traffic, while the remaining 34.9% is offered by coastal and inland traffic. The year of greatest movement was 1928 with almost 15 million tons of goods loaded and unloaded. Imports and exports are equivalent to international trade with 33% and 32.1% of the total movement.

The main imports from abroad concern: oil (39.3% of total foreign trade imports), coming mainly from the Lesser Antilles and Mexico; sugar, mainly from Cuba; molasse, also from Cuba; bananas, almost entirely from the republics of Central America; coffee, from Brazil; bauxite, fertilizers, etc. The main products exported abroad are: oil and its derivatives (35.7% of the total export traffic for abroad), directed to a large number of countries, but above all to Europe; cereals (17.8%) which are mainly directed to Europe, as well as flour; timber, sent mainly to England and to the states of central Europe and then to the West Indies, Central and South America; the cotton, shipped to the great cotton industrial countries of Europe; rice, tobacco, etc. The port, which represents among other things the natural outlet of an immense internal region crossed by great navigable waterways, such as the Mississippi and its tributaries, is served by 47 regular shipping lines, which connect it with the other ports the United States, with Mexico, the Antilles, Central and South America, Great Britain, continental Europe, Africa and Australia. To these must be added the inland navigation lines on rivers, such as the “Federal Barge Lines”, owned by the United States government and operated in its name by the Inland Waterways Corporation, and the “American Barge Line”, a private company,

The city is a major railway and aviation center with Menefee airport, 8km away. east of the city and with regular lines to Atlanta, via Mobile and Montgomery; for Houston via Baton Rouge and Beaumont and for St Louis via Jackson and Memphis operated by American Airways. New Orleans Air Lines operates the aerial trunk between the city and Pilottown, at the far end of the Mississippi Delta.

The city is also a notable center of study, being home to some higher institutes for Negroes, including New Orleans University, founded in 1873, and Tulane University of Louisiana, opened in 1834. There is also the Southern Forest Experiment Station. US Forest Service (1921). There are numerous libraries (Howard Memorial Library; Louisiana State Library; New Orleans Public Library; Tulane University Library, etc.), museums (Louisiana State Museum; Museums of the Tulane University, etc.) and literary and scientific societies.

Monuments. – The character of the city could not be better defined than by the qualification of Creole, since the architectural development of New Orleans before 1800 and most of the main buildings that arose after that date, originated from architects of French or Spanish blood, who however they adapt to local conditions. Only in later works has there been a conscious attempt to copy European architecture. The oldest buildings today remain mainly in the Vieux Carré, the ancient Garden District and around the waters of Bayou St John; Jackson Square, the ancient parade ground, is the center of the old public buildings. The cathedral of St. Louis, in Hispano-Creole style, was built in 1792 on the site of the first church built in Louisiana and was modified in 1850. The ancient monastery of the Ursulines, which dates back to 1730 and is currently the archbishop’s residence, it houses the Colonial Museum. The Cabildo, on Jackson Square, was the Spanish town hall, today, like the facade of the cathedral, transfigured by additions and restorations.

Notable feature of the city are the beautiful iron grates and balustrades of many old houses. A beautiful example of a house such as the Grim House, recalls the general layout of the buildings of the Italian Renaissance in the plan. The Ionic-style New Orleans City Hall is the best example of the work of the senior Gallier and remains essentially unchanged to this day. The mint, with its classic stone portico, was erected by William Strickland, and the picturesque church of St. Augustine by De Pouilly. Other interesting buildings are the Coliseum Place and the mortuary chapel in Rampart Street, now Our Lady of Guadeloupe, begun in 1826. Works of art and objects of historical interest contain the Delgado Museum and the Louisiana State Museum, housed in the Cabildo.

History. – New Orleans was founded by Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne de Bienville, who in 1718 had chosen the site for the capital of Louisiana and had the name of Nouvelle Orléans in honor of the regent of France, the Duke of Orleans. The population of the city, although at the beginning it was made up of adventurers of all kinds, at the time of the transfer to Spain (1765) proved to be very loyal to France, perhaps also as a reaction to the severe orders of Antonio de Ulloa, which soon destroyed all the commerce of the city, so Ulloa had to retire to Balisle. The assembly that proclaimed the republic in 1768 took place in New Orleans, “an example”, said Choiseul, “fruitful for the English colonists”. With the turn of the century the city became an international center of trade due to its position on the river and the development movement towards the west. In January 1815, when the Peace of Ghent had already been signed, the British under Sir EM Pakenham attacked New Orleans, but they were rejected by Andrew Jackson, whose fame given by this success. The city thrived until the Civil War, although in 1849 Baton Rouge replaced it as the state capital. In the summer of 1853, an epidemic of yellow fever raged in New Orleans which, due to the large number of victims it claimed, was of no small importance for the further development of the city. At the end of April 1862 DV Farragut, commander of a Northern fleet, with the help of DD Porter took the city after a furious siege, which had lasted many days to the great detriment of the secessionists. From 1864 to 1882 New Orleans was again the capital, and lively riots took place here in 1866 and 1874. In 1891, eleven Italians were lynched in New Orleans, accused of murdering the police chief.

New Orleans, Louisiana

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