New Hampshire, abbreviated NH, the state of New England in the United States, bordering the north toward Canada (Quebec), northeast to Maine, south to Massachusetts, and west to Vermont. New Hampshire has an area of 24 219 km2 and has 1,342,795 residents (US Census, 2017). The capital is Concord.
Named in 1629 after the county of Hampshire in England, the state is also known as The Granite State, which aims at the granite bedrock.
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New Hampshire is entirely within the Appalachian Islands. The northern third is dominated by the White Mountains, and reaches Mount Washington in 1917 m. Southern 2 / 3 consists of a lower hill land, covered with mother earth and with many small lakes. Along the short (19 km) Atlantic coast lies a narrow coastal plain. Most of the state has drainage to the south through the Merrimack and Connecticut River.
The climate is continental, with a short summer and cold, snowy winter. 85 per cent of the area is wooded. The state’s highest point is Mount Washington (1917 meters) with an alpine climate. On April 12, 1934, wind gusts of 372 km/ h (103 m / s) were measured, which is the highest ever measured manually in the world. The mountain was called Agiocochook (Great Spirit’s home) by indigenous peoples in the area.
The European colonization of New Hampshire began in 1623, and in 1790 the area had approximately 142,000 residents. During the 1800s and the first half of the 20th century, population growth was relatively moderate, but in the latter half of the 1900s, population growth was at times faster than the average for the entire United States.
90.5 percent of residents consider themselves white, 2.8 percent Asian, 3.7 percent Hispanic, and 1.6 percent black (US Census, 2017). The area was originally populated by English and Scottish-Irish Protestants, and their descendants still leave their mark on the state. Another important group is descendants of Catholic French-Canadians, who immigrated in time after the American Civil War (1861-1865).
60.3 per cent of the population live in cities and urban areas (2010), the largest part of the southern part of the state. Largest cities are Manchester, Nashua and the capital Concord.
New Hampshire has retained the annual general meeting as an important form of governance in local politics, has still not introduced sales or income taxes and is known for the slogan ‘Live Free or Die’, ‘Live Free or Die’. The state is the first to hold primary elections in connection with the US presidential elections and thus has a greater significance in the country’s political life than the low population would indicate.
New Hampshire sends two senators and two representatives to the federal congress in Washington DC.
Business in New Hampshire is mainly based on industry and tourism. Agriculture is mostly driven in the valleys around the Merrimack River, which leads north-south across New Hampshire, and the Connecticut River, which forms the western boundary. Especially milk, meat, apples, potatoes and hay are produced.
The industry is found especially in the south, where Merrimack and other rivers are used to produce electric power. The most important products were former shoes, wool and cotton goods, but these are now replaced by electrical and electronic articles, especially computer products. Tourist traffic is important both summer and winter.
Before European colonization began in the 17th century, New Hampshire was inhabited by Abenaki people. The area came under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts in 1641 and became a separate province in 1679, and in 1788 the state – the 9th to ratify the United States Constitution.