Nepal Energy and Environment Facts

Natural resources, energy and environment

Nepal’s mineral resources are poorly explored. The only thing that has been found of some major deposits is mica, which is broken east of the capital Kathmandu. Nepal has the world’s largest hydropower capacity per capita, but only a fraction has been expanded.

There are assets of copper, zinc, iron and cobalt, among others. Some extraction takes place, but most of the known reserves are not profitable to process.

  • COUNTRYAAH: Major exports by Nepal with a full list of the top products exported by the country. Includes trade value in U.S. dollars and the percentage for each product category.

In the 1980s, oil exploration that was believed to be in the lowlands began to be sought. But the result has remained meager and the exploration has basically ceased.

The energy needs are met for the most part by firewood, and partly by agricultural waste and animal waste. The remainder is mainly covered by imported oil and coal. Hydropower accounts for an almost negligible proportion of the energy consumed. However, virtually all electricity is generated from hydropower. However, its own electricity generation is not enough. Electricity must be imported from India. During the 2010s, Nepal has invested in solar energy, with projects in Terai and Kathmandu Valley.

  • Abbreviationfinder: A popular acronym site in the world covering abbreviation for each country. For example, NP stands for Nepal. Visit itypeusa for more information about Nepal.

The wood burning in the home is hazardous to health and can eventually have devastating consequences for the environment. Already, it is obvious that the tree felling is causing problems. Aggravated annual floods in India and Bangladesh can be partly explained by the loss of vegetation on the Himalayan slopes in Nepal, among others. Climate change also causes glaciers to melt, which contributes to the floods.

Important agricultural land has also been lost due to erosion (soil degradation). Tourism is also struggling with the environment, both through debris and increased access to firewood.


Energy use per person

415 kilos of oil equivalent (2014)

Electricity consumption per person

140 kilowatt hours, kWh (2014)

Carbon dioxide emissions in total

8 031 thousand tonnes (2014)

Carbon dioxide emissions per inhabitant

0.3 ton (2014)

The share of energy from renewable sources

85.3 percent (2015)



Big roll victory for the left

December 14

The left alliance between UML and CPN-MC wins the election to Parliament’s lower house with a good margin. UML receives a total of 121 seats, while NC is the second largest with 63. Prachanda’s CPN-MC receives 53 seats and 17 seats go to Madhasian RJP-N. Federal Socialist Forum-Nepal, formed in June 2015 through a party merger, gets 16 seats. Other mandates go to a number of small parties.

Elections are conducted in the south

December 7

The second and final round of the general elections is held, now in Kathmandu and southern Nepal. The election campaign has been quite tense and at least one person has been killed in election-related violence. In the capital, however, it is very quiet as traffic has been stopped by the police for security reasons. The first task of the new parishes is to give their province a name, select a provincial capital and negotiate a budget with Kathmandu.


The first round of elections is held

November 26th

The first of two rounds of elections to the federal parliament and the seven provincial parliaments is conducted in calm forms. The northern provinces are up for election, while the south and Kathmandu will vote on December 7. Dozens of people are injured in sporadic election-related violence, likely perpetrated by waste of the old Maoist guerrillas, but no casualties are reported.


Maoists and Communists form Valallians

October 4th

The newly formed Maoist party CPN-MC and communist UML form an alliance for the general elections in November / December. The alliance also includes another small socialist party. The idea is to merge into a single communist party after a possible electoral victory and thereby one forces against the Nepalese Congress Party (NC).


Feminine discrimination practices become punishable

9th of August

Parliament makes it a criminal offense to compel women to practice the tradition called chhaupadi, which means that a woman who is menstruating may not live at home but is referred to sleeping in a shed at a distance from home. The custom has its roots in the fact that women who have had menstruation or have recently given birth are considered unclean. Chhaupadi was banned by the Supreme Court more than ten years ago, but until now there has been no penalty for anyone convicted of forcing a woman to follow chhaupadi. The law is to come into force in a year and then anyone who repels a menstruating or newly-released woman from home can be sentenced to three months imprisonment or a fine of the equivalent of $ 30.


Local elections are held in the south

June 28

Local elections are being held in the southern parts of the country, despite the newly formed Madhasian party Rastriya Janata Party-Nepal (RJP-N) boycotting it. The Madheses believe that the new division of Nepal into seven provinces is to their disadvantage. Three provinces already held elections in May. According to election observers, turnout is around 70 percent. Only sporadic violence has occurred before Election Day.

Transitional government is formed

7 June

Sher Bahadur Deuba of the Nepalese Congress Party (NC) is elected by Parliament to lead a transitional government until the next parliamentary elections.


The Prime Minister requests a farewell

24th of May

Pushpa Kamal Dahal announces that he is resigning as prime minister, but the president is asking him to remain in office until parliament has appointed a successor. According to an agreement between NC and UML, the leading positions are to switch between the two parties until parliamentary elections are held.

First local elections in 20 years

May 14

For the first time in 20 years, local elections are held in three of the country’s seven provinces. That the elections can be carried out correctly and peacefully is seen as a step in the peace and democracy process.

Nepal concludes agreement on new “Silk Road”

May 12

Nepal signs China’s new infrastructure project Silk Road, covering 65 countries in Asia. When the project becomes a reality, 60 percent of the world’s population and around a third of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP) should be linked in a huge network of well-functioning country roads, railways, electricity lines and more. The goal is to increase the global influence of the Asian continent. The plans include linking Kathmandu to Lhasa in Tibet. Critics of the new Silk Road say China’s influence over smaller and poorer Asian countries, such as Nepal, will increase significantly.


Madhesic parties are merged

April 17

Seven Madhasian parties come together in the National People’s Party-Nepal (RJP-N) under the leadership of Mahanta Thakur. The large Madhesi party Loktantrik (Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum) merges with two other parties in Nepal’s democratic forum, with BK Gachhadar as chairman.


Madhesian alliance jumps off the government

March 16

The Madhasian Party Alliance The United Democratic Madhasian Front (UDMF) leaves the government coalition. The UDMF joined the government in August 2016 on the condition that constitutional supplements were made so as to strengthen the political representation of the Madhas. Since then, work on the constitution has stalled. The UDMF has said it will interfere with the implementation of the planned local elections in May, as the conflict over the border demarcation between the provinces has not yet been resolved. UDMF’s drop-out weakens the government, which can, however, remain.

General strike against police violence

March 7

In protest against the police having shot five protesters a day earlier, a general strike is being carried out in southern Nepal, where markets and schools, among others, are kept closed and public communications are at a standstill.

Five protesters are shot by police

6 March

In troubled southern Nepal, the Marxist-Leninist party is hosting UML demonstrations against the authorities announcing local elections in May. The demonstrations end with the police firing sharply and five people being killed and dozens injured.

Nepal Energy and Environment Facts

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