Industry and trade. – European industry has developed rapidly in Morocco; more favored are the industries derived from agriculture, especially that of oil and flour. A sugar factory, a superphosphate factory, has been created in Casablanca, while major electrical workshops provide the driving force. In total there are 600 industrial plants in the French area which have 51,000 HP and employ 11,000 workers.
The customs regime of Morocco is based on the principle of equality between all powers; all products, from any origin, are subject to the same regime. Import duties for open ports are 12.5% on most items. For Morocco 2006, please check computergees.com.
The trade of Morocco up to the establishment of the French protectorate had had very little importance, but the increase in traffic must have been very rapid after the European penetration: in fact the trade rose from 68 million in 1904 to 140 million in 1911 and 222 million in 1913. The figures after the World War, even reduced to the value of gold, attest to great progress. In 1920 the value of the trade was 1269 million; the average of the years 1924-28 was 2326 million and in 1929, which can be considered a normal year, the total was 3781 million, of which 3439 for port trade and 342 for trade across the Algerian border. If we add to this figure 163 million for the Tangier area and 432 million for the Spanish area, a grand total of more than 4 billion francs is reached. In 1932 the trade in the French area was only 2470 million francs and 2,771,000 tons of weight. In this total, imports represent 1,124,000 tons for 685 million francs. The share of France is 907 million in imports (50%) and 485 million in exports (70%). Imports consist of items required for the needs of natives or Europeans: sugar, tea, wines, wheat flour; cotton, wool and silk fabrics; household items, such as soap, lamps, matches; then various tools, machines, metalwork, automobiles, coals, essences, petroleum. Exports consist almost exclusively of agricultural and livestock products and calcium phosphates.
Communication and ports. – Before the French protectorate, Morocco had neither ports nor roads nor railways; in a relatively short time, and with quite satisfactory result, he was provided with these deficiencies.
Eight ports, which were only breakwaters, were opened for trade: Tetuán, Tangier, Larache, Rabat, Casablanca, Mazagan, Safi and Mogador; to these were added Mehdia, at the mouth of the Sebou; Kenitra (Port-Lyautey), an inland port located on this same river; Fedhala, between Rabat and Casablanca; Agadir, port of the Sous. Important works were carried out in Casablanca; the port is formed by a large cliff, 2500 meters long, which protects the bay from the waves of the open sea; a transversal cliff advances in front of the larger one; the port has a water surface of 146 hectares, with two depths of 12 meters; moreover, piers, embankments, warehouses with special installations for the conservation of phosphates, coal and cereals were built. A port has also been set up in Tangier and less important works have been carried out in the secondary ports; works were also carried out in the Spanish area: in Larache, Ceuta, Villa Sanjurjo and Melilla.
The Moroccan road network adds up to 3,500 km. of main roads and 2500 km. of secondary roads: the main roads connect the various ports with each other, give access from the coast to the great centers of the interior and open to western Morocco a communication with eastern Morocco and Algeria. In Spanish Morocco there are 796 km. of roads and 1600 km. of slopes.
The network of standard gauge railway tracks of m. 1.44 includes the line from Tangier to Fez (315 km., Of which 203 in the French area, 92 in the Spanish area and 20 in the Tangerina area). Apart from this line, the layout of the other railways was imposed by the structure of the town itself; it was necessary to connect Casablanca to Fez and to the Algerian border on the one hand, to Morocco on the other and to disengage the service of the important mineral deposits discovered. The line from Casablanca to Fez was completed in 1925; that from Casablanca to Morocco, on which a trunk leading to the deposits of Kouriga is grafted, in 1928; the line from Fez to Oudjda, intended to complete the great Casablanca-Tunis artery and to unite the various parts of North Africa, was completed in 1933. This first network (including the French part of the Tangier-Fez railway) measures 1233 km. In eastern Morocco, a line from Oudjda to Bou Arfa serves the manganese and coal deposits; in Spanish Morocco, with the exception of the section belonging to Tangier-Fez, the railways are of little importance.