Prehistory and early history
The first human traces on the territory of Kyrgyzstan are assigned to the Paleolithic (Aschel period, around 400,000–100,000 BC; excavation finds in the Osh area). Arable farming and cattle breeding have been proven by numerous excavations (especially on Issykkul) for the Bronze Age (2000–1000 BC). In addition to the Saken (7th – 3rd century BC) (so named in Persian sources), the tribal union of the Usuns (3rd / 2nd century BC to 4th century AD) dominated the Tian area Shan, Alai and parts of the land of the Seven Rivers. A differentiation was made between arable farming and urban settlement methods (especially in the south, Fergana area, Osh) and warlike nomadic tribes.
Territory of various peoples and empires
In the 5th / 6th In the 19th century the territory belonged to the Empire of the Hephthalites; after its collapse, Altaic Turkic tribes (Turkut) established a nomadic empire subdivided into four khanates, which existed until 582 and in the north-west of which was the Kyrgyz region. In 10./11. In the 19th century it belonged to the empire of the Qarakhanids; urban cultures, trade and commerce developed in close association with the development of irrigation systems and agriculture; Feudal systems and military aristocracy were characteristic. Islam became the official religion without displacing traditional beliefs. In the middle of the 12th century, Tungus-Mongolian nomad tribes invaded, and in 1219 the equestrian associations of Genghis Khan conquered the country (destruction of numerous cities).
Turkomongols pushed into the area, which was eventually divided up between the sons of Genghis Khan and his warlords and took regional- specific developments. The fall of the Golden Horde was accompanied by the rise of the Timurids (14th – 15th centuries). A Kazakh-Kyrgyz military alliance at the beginning of the 16th century created the conditions for a certain independence of Kyrgyz tribal alliances, the formation of which, however, was disrupted by constant campaigns of conquest (1591 Mongols, 1643 and 30s / 40s of the 18th century). In the first half of the 19th century, the Kyrgyz became dependent on the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. Numerous uprisings by the Kirghiz (including 1856/57) led to an increase in Russian influence.
Kyrgyzstan as part of the Russian Empire and within the Soviet Union
After the khanate of Kokand was defeated by Russian troops (1876), according to shoe-wiki, Kyrgyzstan belonged to the General Government of Turkestan with its seat in Tashkent. In addition to resistance to the Tsarist settlement and tax policy, the Kyrgyz took part in the great anti-Tsarist uprising in 1916; The occasion was the inclusion of Muslims in conscription. After the suppression of the uprising, thousands emigrated with their herds to western China (especially to Sinkiang).
After the establishment of Soviet power in 1917-18, Kyrgyzstan initially belonged to the Turkestan ASSR, on October 14, 1924, Kyrgyzstan was assigned to the RSFSR as the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Region (May 25, 1925 renamed the Kyrgyz Autonomous Region, February 1, 1926 reorganization in Kyrgyz ASSR). On December 5, 1936, Kyrgyzstan received the status of a Union Republic. The forced collectivization from 1929 onwards represented the most momentous turning point in Kyrgyz society. The forced settlement of the nomads, the »deculakization« (Kulak), which here also meant the expulsion of the clan heads, and the expansion of the cotton-growing areas not only led to the resurgence of the resistance of the “Basmatschen”, which was only crushed in 1926, but also to the flight and reduction of the Kyrgyz population and their livestock. Resistance in the ranks of the Kyrgyz intelligentsia, including the party apparatus, was answered with “purges” (reduction in the number of members of the CP by 51%). The expansion of transport routes and the onset of industrialization promoted an influx of workers from the European parts of the USSR; the Second World War and the admission of deported peoples intensified this process. The relative liberalization under N. S. Khrushchevat the same time created freedom for the assertion of national interests. During this time, ethnic Kyrgyz people were able to re-establish themselves increasingly in party and state functions (for example, Turdakun Ussubalijew [* 1919] was in 1961–85 )at the head of the Kyrgyz CP), with traditional loyalty structures (clan, tribe, clientele) being reproduced and disputes within Kyrgyzstan still shaping up today. At the same time, the social basis for the development of a Kyrgyz national feeling was expanded, which increasingly countered the grievances of Sovietization (Russification, command-administrative intervention by Moscow, environmental crimes). a. since 1987 publicly complained. A communist majority won the parliamentary elections in February 1990, but against the background of bloody ethnic disputes between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks over the distribution of land and resources in the area of Osh and Özgen (Fergana Basin) with around 300 dead, political forces became polarized (at the same time tribal and regional power groups), which led to the introduction of a state presidency in October. As a compromise candidate, the scientist could Assert A. Akayev on October 27, 1990 (confirmed in office by elections in October 1991).