Kenya Mountains, Rivers and Lakes

According to, Kenya is located in Eastern Africa and is bordered by Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. It covers an area of approx. 582,650 sq km with a coastline of 536 km along the Indian Ocean. The country has a wide variety of geographical features including snow capped peaks, savannahs, deserts and forests. The highest point in the country is Mount Kenya at 5199 meters above sea level while the lowest point is at sea level.

The landscape of Kenya is mainly composed of highlands with two main areas; the eastern highlands which run from north to south and the western highlands which run from east to west. The eastern highlands are characterized by rolling hills and include Mount Kenya as well as Aberdare Range. To the west lies Lake Victoria which forms part of the Great Rift Valley system that stretches to Ethiopia in the north and Tanzania in the south. Other geographical features include numerous rivers such as Tana River, Yala River, Ewaso Ng’iro River, Mara River among many others which provide water for both domestic use and irrigation for agricultural activities.

The climate in Kenya varies greatly depending on altitude but can generally be characterized as tropical climate with warm temperatures year round with rainy seasons between March-June and October-December respectively. There are also arid regions like Northern region around Turkana Lake where temperatures can reach as high as 40°C during dry seasons while in mountainous regions like Mt Kilimanjaro temperatures can drop below 0°C during winter months.


Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya, and it stands at a peak of 5,199 meters. It is located in the centre of Kenya and is part of the Aberdare Range. Mount Kenya is an important cultural site to the Kikuyu people and it is believed that God resides on its peaks. The mountain has three major peaks; Batian (5,199 meters), Nelion (5,188 meters) and Point Lenana (4,985 meters). The mountain offers breathtaking views and its slopes are home to many endemic species of wildlife.

Mount Elgon is another significant mountain in Kenya. It stands at a height of 4,321 meters above sea level and straddles both Kenya and Uganda. It is part of the Eastern Rift Valley which includes Lake Turkana to its north-west corner. Mount Elgon is an extinct volcano with two main peaks; Wagagai (4,321 meters) on the Ugandan side and Sudek (4,302 meters) on the Kenyan side. The slopes offer a variety of landscapes ranging from dense forests to moorlands filled with heathers and other alpine vegetation. Its crater has been declared a national park due to its incredible biodiversity which includes over 300 species of birds as well as large mammals such as elephants, buffalo and colobus monkeys.


The Tana River is the longest river in Kenya. It is located in the Eastern part of the country and has a length of about 1,097 kilometers. It has its source in Mt. Kenya and flows eastwards through forests and semi-arid areas before emptying into the Indian Ocean at Kipini. The Tana River Basin is an important source of water for many communities as well as for hydroelectric power generation.

The Ewaso Ngiro is another major river in Kenya, originating in the highlands of central Kenya before flowing northward through the Samburu National Reserve to finally empty into Lake Turkana. The river supports a number of wildlife species including crocodiles, hippos, and gazelles. In addition to providing water for wildlife and humans alike, it also serves as a major source of irrigation for local farms along its banks.

The Mara River is another significant river in Kenya which flows from Lake Victoria to Lake Naivasha where it drains into the Great Rift Valley. This river provides water for both domestic use and for irrigation purposes to numerous farms along its banks. It is also an important habitat for hippos, crocodiles, and other aquatic life forms such as fish species like Tilapia, Catfish, Lungfish among others. In addition to providing sustenance to these animals and humans alike, it also serves as a tourist destination with many people flocking there every year to witness its beauty first hand or take part in activities such as white-water rafting or fishing trips on its waters.


Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Kenya and the second-largest freshwater body in Africa. It is the source of the White Nile and lies on the border between Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. Its size varies from 68,800 sq km during wet season to 59,000 sq km during dry season. It is a shallow lake with an average depth of 11 m. The lake is home to more than 200 species of fish, including tilapia, catfish, and eels. The lake also supports a large population of migratory birds. The islands in Lake Victoria are home to many species of primates such as vervet monkeys and black-and-white colobus monkeys.

Lake Turkana, sometimes referred to as the Jade Sea due to its greenish hue, is located in northwestern Kenya. It is Africa’s largest desert lake and one of the world’s largest alkaline lakes. With an area of 6500 sq km it is larger than Lake Victoria but much deeper at an average depth of 75 m. It has no outlet but obtains most its water from seasonal rains that feed rivers such as Omo River which flows into it from Ethiopia. The lake supports a variety of wildlife including crocodiles, hippopotamus, fish species such as tilapia and catfish as well as numerous bird species such as flamingos and pelicans. Due to its remote location it has been designated a Ramsar site – a wetland site recognized internationally for its importance for biodiversity conservation purposes.

Kenya Mountains

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