Religion in Iran
Iran is the only Islamic state where Shiism dominates. About 90% of the believing population of the country are Shia Muslims. 8% of believers are Sunni Muslims, and the remaining 2% are Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews and Baha’is.
Transport in Iran
The best way to get to Iran is by plane. Several airlines operate flights from Moscow to Tehran. You can also go to Iran by air transport with transfers in Baku (Azerbaijan), Doha (Qatar), Abu Dhabi and Sharjah (UAE), Manama (Bahrain), Kuwait (Kuwait), Damascus (Syria) and Istanbul (Turkey).). Sometimes such flights are cheaper than direct flights from Moscow. There are also trains to Tehran from Istanbul and Damascus (Syria) and buses from the cities of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Iraq. In addition, Iran is connected by ferry service to Sharjah and Dubai (UAE), Manama (Bahrain) and Baku (Azerbaijan).
Within the country, you can travel by plane, train or bus. Local airlines connect cities such as Tehran, Tabriz, Rasht, Isfahan, Shiraz, Kerman, Mashhad, Bandar Abbas, Ahvaz, Zahedan, Kermanshah, Bushehr, Kish. You can book plane tickets back in Russia in Moscow at the office of the national carrier Iran Air. Bus service has been established between Iranian cities. Buses are mostly comfortable, most often they depart as they fill up. But still, for long distances it is better to travel by train. Railways link cities such as Tehran, Tabriz, Mashhad, Isfahan, Yazd, Kerman, Bandar Abbas, Arak, Abadan and Ahfaz. There are three classes of carriages in trains: comfortable first, seated second and third class, like electric trains.
Inside cities, it is better to use taxi services, as buses and fixed-route taxis are most often overcrowded. If you still decide to go by bus, then remember that women and men sit in different parts of the bus. There are no meters in taxis, fares for trips are fixed. Prices can be found at special taxi prepaid cash desks, which are found at railway stations, airports and on the central streets of cities. Taxi drivers often pick up several people at the same time. It is not worth using the services of private cabs. Tehran has a subway.
There are car rental points in almost every city. In order to rent a car, you must have an international driver’s license. If you have rented a car, then get ready for the fact that local motorists do not follow the rules of the road.
Plant and Animal World in Iran
Broad-leaved forests grow only on the northern slopes of Elburz up to a height of 2500 m. Oak, hornbeam, maple, beech, ironwood, elm, plane tree, ash, walnut and plum are found here. Subtropical forests stretch along the coast of the Caspian Sea. The northern and central regions of the Zagros are covered with shrubs with a significant proportion of oak. On the slopes of low mountains, steppe and desert vegetation prevails: perennial and annual grasses, wormwood, astragalus, saxaul, camel thorn, comb, saltwort and aristida. There is practically no vegetation on the central Iranian plateau. On the coast of the Persian Gulf there are mangroves.
Of the animals in Iran, a variety of ungulates live: goitered gazelle, ibex, Iranian fallow deer, mountain sheep urial, bearded goat, mouflon, kulan, common gazelle, wild boar. Of the predators, there are leopard, cheetah, reed cat, manul, jackal, wolf, striped hyena, caracal, less often – cheetah and mongoose. Brown and white-breasted bears also live in the mountains. The world of rodents and reptiles is diverse. Of the birds on the territory of Iran, there are grouse, partridges, bustard-beauty, Caspian snowcock, tupach, gray francolin, keklik, long-legged buzzard, white stork, gray crane, little bustard, and on the coasts of the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf: flamingos, pelicans, sandpipers, geese, ducks and marbled teal. The waters of the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf are full of valuable species of commercial fish.
Minerals in Iran
Iran has large reserves of oil and natural gas, as well as deposits of coal, iron ore, manganese, zinc, chromium, tin and sulfur.
Political State in Iran
The official name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Iran. According to politicsezine, the head of state is the Supreme Leader, who is the religious leader and is appointed by the Council of Experts, consisting of representatives of the Islamic clergy. In matters of domestic and foreign policy, the Supreme Leader always has the last word. Executive power is concentrated in the hands of the President and the Council of Ministers. The President is the second state official after the Supreme Leader. He represents the country at the official level and is elected by direct popular vote for a four-year term. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral parliament – the Majlis – and the Supervisory Board, which ensures that the laws passed by the Majlis are consistent with Islam and the constitution.
Population in Iran
About 50% of Iran’s population are Persians. The second largest people in the country are Azerbaijanis (37%). Also living in the country are Kurds – (6%), Turkmens – (3%), Arabs – (2%), Baluchis – (2%), and small communities of Armenians, Circassians, Assyrians, Georgians and Pashtuns.
The official language of Iran is Persian, or, as the locals call it, Farsi. It belongs to the Iranian group of the Indo-European family of languages. Due to the fact that many Azerbaijanis live in the country, the Azerbaijani language is widely spoken. Also in Iran you can hear many different Iranian languages and dialects. Hotel staff and airport employees can communicate in English.