Population. – The 1990 census found a population of 10,374,823 residents, 334,640 less than the previous census of 1980. The demographic dynamics of the country were therefore characterized for the 1980s by a negative growth rate. This situation is the result of a rather low birth rate (11.4ı in 1993) and a death rate of 14.6ı, and is further aggravated by a negative balance among migratory flows, in particular by force emigration. young work, which continued for decades and intensified in the 1988-90 period, which is also a major cause of population aging.
The urban population is constantly increasing (63.2% in 1993), but still lower than that of the most industrialized European countries. The distribution of the population on the territory continues to be very unbalanced: Budapest concentrates about 20% of the Hungarian population, and the attractiveness of the capital continues to grow. The other Hungarian cities do not exceed 10% of the population of Budapest, and although policies have been attempted since the 1970s to mitigate the imbalances in the urban network and decongest the capital, the results have been very modest. For Hungary 2012, please check oxfordastronomy.com.
Economic conditions. – In the Hungary a reform of the rigid planned economic system of Soviet origin has been implemented since the seventies. For two decades the country’s political leaders have tried to combine planning with some liberalization of economic activities. This reform has gradually introduced a certain autonomy for companies, privatized a series of economic activities and partially modified the pricing mechanism, leaving a part of them to be defined by the market. At the time of the political-economic upheavals that affected Eastern Europe in 1989-90, the Hungary it thus found an advantage, having already started the process of transition to a market economy. The reopening of the Budapest Stock Exchange and the formation of many joint stock companies took place before the end of the 1980s, and the country was favored by investments from Western companies, primarily Austrian and German, but also Italian and Japanese. The liberalizing measures of the economy, while providing new space for the private sector (and in particular in the field of services, where the privatization process is very advanced), have however only partially reduced the weight of the state economy. The latter remains central in the mining and energy sectors and in a large part of the industrial sector. Agriculture itself in 1992 still kept 90% of the cooperative structures,
The major problems of the Hungarian economy derive not only from the complexity and slowness of the change in the economic organization, but also from the dissolution of the commercial area of the former COMECON. Poor in energy resources, the Hungary it can no longer rely on imports from the former USSR of subsidized oil, which it now has to pay at the world market price, which represents a substantial additional cost. Furthermore, a large part of the industrial sector, in particular heavy mechanical and iron and steel production, has considerably reduced both exports to Eastern Europe and sales on the domestic market, and is very difficult to find outlets in the West due to technological delay. and the obsolescence of the productions.
A sector that has instead benefited immediately from the political change is that of tourism, with an increase from Western countries and the consequent influx of hard currency. Overall visitors were 40.5 million in 1993. The priority need to have economic relations with other countries, also determined by the restricted internal market, is one of the causes that led the Hungary to undertake by 2000 to establish a free trade area with Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, a prerequisite for entry into the European Union, of which he has been an associate member since 1992.