Scientists still do not know exactly where the Vietnamese came from. It is only known that the first human settlements arose on the territory of modern Vietnam about 500 thousand years ago. The first bronze culture arose here in the 3rd millennium BC. In the II century. BC. The Red River Delta was captured by the Chinese, who for several centuries actively tried to Sinicize the local population, which, however, met with staunch resistance from the natives. Nevertheless, the Vietnamese adopted many technologies from the Chinese invaders, including the use of metals in agriculture, the construction of irrigation facilities, etc. It was thanks to this that it became possible to form a new culture based on the cultivation and cultivation of rice as the main product, which left its mark on the entire subsequent history this country. Thanks to the Chinese the Vietnamese were also introduced to Confucianism and Taoism. Along with Buddhism and Hinduism, which were brought here by Indian traders, these religious and philosophical teachings also largely determined the cultural development of Vietnam. Despite the active cultural exchange, the Vietnamese constantly fought against the hated Chinese yoke. The thousand-year domination of the invaders came to an end only in 938, when the Vietnamese troops led by Ngo Quyen defeated the enemies in a battle on the Bat Dang River. The next time the Chinese captured Vietnam was in 1407 and held it for 20 years. This time, Emperor Le Loi becomes the hero of the Vietnamese resistance, who not only managed to defeat the Chinese, but also laid the foundation for the Vietnamese expansion to the south. The expansion of the empire led to a loss of management efficiency. As a result, soon the country was actually divided into two halves – the north, where the Chin feudal clan ruled, and the south, the territory of the Nguyen clan. Ultimately, the Nguyen clan managed to outwit and defeat the southerners. At the beginning of the XIX century. one of the members of the clan, with the help of the French, managed to establish control over the country, declared himself emperor of Vietnam and founded a new imperial dynasty.
Dynasty The Nguyen dynasty ruled Vietnam from 1802 to 1945. This stage of the country’s history is distinguished primarily by the ever-growing influence of France, which tried to turn Vietnam into one of its colonies. One of the areas of her activity was active missionary work in the region, which met with a rather harsh rebuff from the local rulers. By the 50s. 18th century this resulted in mass persecution and execution of Catholic priests and Vietnamese converts. France took advantage of this as an excuse to send troops into the country. Under the pretext of protecting the Catholic minority, in 1859 the French captured Saigon, by 1867 – the whole of southern Vietnam, and in 1884 this country, together with neighboring Laos and Cambodia, were declared a French Protectorate. See Countryvv for labor market in Vietnam.
Period of French rule
The period of French rule is characterized primarily by the extremely poor situation of the population and the growth of anti-French revolutionary sentiments. The successful revolution in China in 1911, and then in Russia in 1917, inspired the Vietnamese oppositionists and spurred the spread of dissent in the country. The leader of the communist underground and the leader of the Vietnamese revolution was Ho Chi Minh, who in 1930 created the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Viet Minh nationalist organization, the ultimate goal of which was the complete expulsion of the French from the region and the formation of an independent Vietnamese state. The Vietnamese communist visionary was Ho Chi Minh, the son of a teacher from Vinh Province. In 1911 he left Vietnam and spent the next 30 years in various countries, establishing the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1930. His return to Vietnam in 1941 was the catalyst for Vietnamese independence, first from the Japanese and eventually from the French. In the same year, he founded the Viet Minh, which was primarily a nationalist organization aimed at expelling the French and achieving Vietnamese independence. Since 1940, the country was actually ruled by the Japanese. After their surrender in 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared himself the ruler of an independent Vietnam. The French again tried to establish control over the country, which led to a nine-year war for independence. The United States, concerned about the success of the communists in Korea and China, gradually became involved in the conflict with the red Vietnam and began to support the non-communist South of the country in every possible way.
Fight for independence
In 1954, the North Vietnamese managed to defeat France. In Geneva, an agreement was signed according to which the country was divided into two zones – the communist north and the non-communist south. The dividing line ran along the 17th parallel. However, the peace turned out to be short-lived – in 1965, after a series of crises and against the background of an intensifying confrontation between the two governments of Vietnam, the United States was forced to send troops into the country. Active hostilities began. By 1968, the size of the American army in the region exceeded half a million people, however, they could not defeat the Viet Cong guerrilla units. Under pressure from the American public, the US Army command gradually began the process of withdrawing troops from Vietnam. In 1973, American soldiers were completely withdrawn from the region. Saigon, the capital of the South, soon fell.
Formation of the state
After the final victory over the Americans and the unification of the country, Ho Chi Minh faced several external threats at once. Firstly, it was the Khmer Rouge (Cambodians), who suddenly invaded the country in the Mekong Delta region, and secondly, the Chinese intervention in the north. The Vietnamese managed to expel the invaders from the country and begin the peaceful construction of a planned economy. Only after the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War did the country take a new course aimed at an “open door” policy and gradual integration into the world community. By now, all Western countries, including the United States. restored diplomatic relations with Hanoi.