History of Ohio

The Frenchman La Salle was the first European who gave news of the region that today occupies the state of Ohio. This explorer discovered the Ohio River around 1670 and sailed to Lake Erie in 1679. The Ohio region was claimed by the British and French as they began to learn about the prosperous leather trade. The conflict between the two European powers resulted in the Indian Wars (1753-1763) a conflict that occurred parallel to the Seven Years War, 1756-1763, and which ended with the Treaty of Paris where France was significantly damaged. In fact, France had to cede part of the province of Louisiana to Spain.

During the US War of Independence, the ‘long knives’, a group of men from Virginia and led by George Rogers Clark, managed to wrest their forts in Ohio from the British. These men, in the same way, managed to defeat the Shawnee Indians, allies of the British.

After Independence, the Ohio region was part of the Northwest Territory. Congress, in 1787, approved a system whereby the territories it administered could be colonized and develop their own governments, with the intention that they could eventually become states of the Union. Thus, settlements of settlers began after the war, many of whom had been granted their lands as a reward for serving during the revolution. At the first settlement, Marietta, in 1788, was followed by Losantiville which later became the city of Cincinnati. The colonization of Ohio evidently had to deal with the interests of the Indians who were taken away their lands.

With the end of the wars with the Indian tribes, colonization of the rich lands of Ohio attracted thousands of settlers from the east, so that by 1802 Ohio had enough population to be admitted as a state. The purchase of Louisiana in 1803 allowed for considerable economic growth in Ohio, thanks to the trade that took place along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers that allowed access to this region from New Orleans. This economic prosperity attracted not only American settlers from the eastern states, but also from England, Ireland and central Europe. The large number of settlers who reached this region in the mid 19th century, it required an improvement in communications with the industrial nuclei of the Atlantic coast, for this reason it was invested in the construction of a system of canals that connected the Ohio River with Lake Erie. The connection with the Great Lakes also served to open the doors to expansion towards the west. The construction of the railroad in 1860 succeeded in further strengthening Ohio’s strategic position in the process of economic integration between east and west.

The population of the state of Ohio during the Civil War (1861-1865) split, as the southern region of the state was more economically connected with the southern slave states, especially Kentucky and Virginia. During the war there were no major battles in Ohio, as it was too far north, outside the center of the conflict. Federal Army generals Ulysses Grant and William Sherman were native of Ohio. The state contributed more than 320,000 men to defend the Union. The war had an important effect on Ohio’s economy as it led to this traditionally agricultural and peasant state to acquire greater industrial weight. and from that moment the exploitation of its mineral resources, iron and coal, was also started, thanks also to its communications network. The city of Cleveland already became a first-rate industrial center at that time.

In 1913, a devastating flood occurred in Ohio which forced the state to make a large investment in the control system of its river system. The First World War allowed Ohio to have a great economic boom, this caused the accelerated growth of the main urban centers: Cincinnati, Toledo, Cleveland and Dayton. Although the great economic depression of the 1930s had devastating effects in Ohio, as in the rest of the country, the beginning of World War II definitively revitalized the Ohio industry, thanks to its specialization in the fields of land and naval equipment, weapons and aircraft material.

The large number of US presidents from Ohio (Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Harrison, McKinley, Taft and Harding), is a clear indication of the enormous weight this state has had, and continues to have, in the country.

Ohio tourist spots – what to see

Tourist and cultural places – Among the numerous cultural institutions stand out the Akron Art Museum, the Canton Art Institute, the Cincinnati Museum of Art, the Natural History Museum of Cincinnati, the Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art, the Museum of Art of Columbus, the Dayton Museum of Natural History, the Massillon Museum, the Ohio Historic Center, in Columbus, the Taft House Museum, in Cincinnati, and the Toledo Museum of Art. Other sites of historical and cultural interest are the archaeological remains of Mound City Group, where the burial mounds of the Hopewell culture, which inhabited this territory 2200 years ago, are preserved. Also interesting to visit is the reconstruction of the village of Schoenbrunn, where the first mission in Ohio was founded in 1772.

Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati are the cities that offer the major attractions including museums, restaurants, shops, parks.

Cincinnati is home to major corporations, including entertainment districts and riverside parks. The dynamic National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is dedicated to the city’s heroic past. Cincinnati’s most famous landmark is the steel and stone suspension bridge built in 1867. Another important building is the 1933 Art Deco-style Union Terminal.

The city of Cleveland has 7689 hectares of parks. The East 4th Street Distrkt and the historic Warehouse District are the entertainment districts. A prominent monument of the city since 1927, the Terminal Tower. The 42nd floor, panoramic, offers a splendid view of the city. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum has made Cleveland one of the entertainment capitals in the USA. The imposing museum, retrace the history of rock, from its origins in the blues of the Mississippi delta and in the string instruments of the Appalachian mountains.

The NFL Hall of Fame is located in Canton. Popular amusement parks include Cedar Point in Sandusky, King’s Island in Cincinnati, and Six Flags Worlds of Adventure in Aurora.

Lake Erie Islands – The Lake Erie Islands are a popular tourist destination during the summer. The islands include Kelleys Island, bucolic and quiet, and South Bass Island, more lively, with the town of Put-in-Bay, the center of nightlife. Kelleys Island State Park features the fascinating Glacial Grooves, a series of deep sandstone grooves caused by the upheavals of a heavy glacial wall. Marblehead Lighthouse, built in 1821, is a characteristic feature of the region. Beaches and parks in the Lake Erie region are particularly popular, including Mentor Headlands State Park and The Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation area.

Among the most visited national parks in Ohio East Harbor, Alum Creek, St. Mary’s, Grand Lake, Hueston Woods, Hocking Hills, Mohican, Pymatuning (on the Pennsylvania border), Rocky Fork, Scioto Trail, Salt Fork and West Branch.

The eastern Allegheny region has numerous ski slopes for invenal sports enthusiasts. Popular tourist attractions here include the Amish settlement near Millersburg, the National Road-Zane Gray Museum near Zanesville, and the restored village of Roscoe on the Ohio-Erie Canal. In the western region, tourist sites include the Wright brothers early flying machines in Carillon Park in Dayton, the Ohio Caverns in West Liberty and the Zane Caverns near Bellefontaine.

Serpent Mound– Although the exact dating is not known, research suggests that it was created between 800 BC and 400 AD by the Adena. It seems to represent a snake in the act of unrolling. At one end is the tightly twisted tail, while the other end forms a mouth-like opening. A nearby museum traces the history of the mound and its conservation.

Fun Fact – Ohio has several teams in the US professional leagues: The Cleveland Indians and the Cincinnati Reds, in baseball; the Cleveland Browns and the Cincinnati Bengals, in American football, and the Cleveland Cavaliers, in basketball.

Ohio State Flag

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