The Indians who lived in the lands of Maryland when the first Europeans arrived belonged to the Susquehannock, Nanticoke, Patuxent, Portobago and Wicomico tribes.
The Spaniards explored the region in 1520, but it was the British who first settled in the territory. In 1608, John Smith, of Jamestown, Virginia, sailed up the Chesapeake Bay. In 1631, William Claiborne founded Maryland’s first permanent enclave on the Isle of Kent.
- See Countryaah.com for a full list of counties in Maryland.
The English Catholic, George Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, obtained in 1632 from King Charles I the administration of the lands north of the Potomac River, a region that included Maryland, Delaware and part of Pennsylvania. These lands were inherited by his son Cecil, who was commonly called Lord Baltimore. In 1634, Lord Baltimore’s half-brother, Leonard Calvert, left England with the ships “Ark” and “Dove” with 250 Catholic settlers, bound for Maryland. in that same year the colonists founded St. Marys City, where the colony’s government was established. According to the document signed by Lord Baltimore in 1649, religious freedom was guaranteed in the colony of Maryland, this encouraged the Virginia Puritans to move there. During these early years there were clashes between Leonard Calvert and William Clairborne. In 1654, Clairborne rebelled against Calvert, who fled, and took refuge in Virginia. Clairborne ruled in Maryland for a few years until Cromwell (governor of England at the time) recognized Lord Baltimore’s rights, and Clairborne was forced to return power.
- See ejiaxing.org for Maryland state facts, including geography, climate, flora and fauna as well as major cities.
Charles Calvert inherited ownership of the Maryland colony as the third Baron of Baltimore. However, the Protestants pressed to prevent a Catholic from ruling this colony, and they obtained this starting in 1689. Thus, in 1692 it was decreed that the official religion of the colony was Anglican, and the Catholics lost the right to vote in 1714. in the colony. The Calvert family continued to exercise their rights over the colony, as they renounced their Catholic faith.
The settlers of Maryland were staunch supporters of independence. Thus, in the Second Continental Congress of July 1776, they unanimously voted for autonomy, which was ratified in the constitution adopted in November 1776. The Continental Congress met in Baltimore and later in Annapolis, so these two cities are considered the first capitals of the United States. Few battles were fought in Maryland during the War of Independence, but its citizens actively participated in providing materials, money and men for the US military. In 1781 Maryland ceded part of its territory to create the capital of the United States, Washington. In 1788,
During the war of 1812, British troops tried to regain control of their colonies, on this occasion Maryland was severely damaged, when the English army entered from the Chesapeake Bay, devastated countryside and cities. The most important battles were fought near the Patuxtent River and at Fort McHenry, near Baltimore.
The colony depended from the eighteenth century on the cultivation of tobacco, (and therefore of slavery), on wheat (cultivation introduced by colonists of German origin) and on commercial activities, thanks to the excellent conditions of the port of Baltimore. The development of this city, one of the most important in the United States during the nineteenth century, was facilitated by the construction of the railroad between Baltimore and Ohio, and by the opening of canals between the Ohio and Chesapeake rivers, and between the latter and the river. Delaware. With these improvements in communications, Baltimore for decades managed to monopolize the supply of a large amount of raw materials and industrial products to the Ohio Valley and the colonies of ‘ west. Baltimore was one of the main ports of arrival for many of the immigrants who arrived in America during the nineteenth century, for this reason many of them gave up going to the inland lands but settled permanently in this city or nearby, this explains the heterogeneity of its population.
During the Civil War (1861-1865) the citizens of Maryland were torn between loyalty to the Union and a desire for secession. Although Maryland was a slave state, the government opted for union. Many, however, were those who fought alongside the Confederate army. The Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest fought in Maryland during this conflict, was won by the Union at the cost of countless casualties. After the war, the 1867 Constitution was passed, abolishing slavery in the state of Maryland. Maryland’s economy after the Civil War diversified, focusing on industrial activities as the reconstruction of the south had enormous benefits for the steel, shipbuilding and basic necessities industries. Maryland’s shipyards grew dramatically starting in 1914 with the First World War. This growth intensified with the outbreak of World War II.
Today, alongside traditional industries, other sectors of strategic interest have developed, such as research. Baltimore continues to be the center of the state’s economy, it is the fourth-most trafficked port in the nation, although Baltimore has suffered a progressive deterioration that required intervention by the authorities. Thus, in 1980, 18 million dollars were invested in a rehabilitation project of the Inner Harbor area, which allowed the expansion of tourism, becoming an important voice in the economy of the city.
Maryland: what to see, places to visit
Maryland is often described as “America in miniature,” and for good reason: this small state has all the best things in the country, from the Appalachian Mountains in the west to the white sand beaches in the east. Its main city, Baltimore, is a harsh and demanding port city. This is also an extremely diverse and progressive state, and was one of the first in the country to legalize gay marriage.
- See itypemba.com to learn specific information about Baltimore Maryland geography.
North Bay – The delightful town of Havre de Grace is home to the Concord Point Lighthouse. Loved by artists and photographers, this lighthouse has been active since the mid-19th century. Across the bay to the east, the dense forests of Elk Neck State Park cover the tip of a peninsula crowned by Turkey Point Lighthouse. The park offers a sandy beach, boats, miniature golf and walking trails. Northeast of the park on the other side of the Elk River is Chesapeake City. Today the village is a “boutique town” full of shops and restaurants.
Ocean City – In the summer, umbrellas provide shade, while in the evening the boardwalk, which runs along the beach, is filled with couples, lonely people, and strolling families. In the cove, on the southern edge of Ocean City, the Ocean City Life-Saving Museum, in a former rescue station. North of the promenade are the Trimper’s Rides, featuring a steam carousel with 45 animals.
Salisbury – The largest city on the Eastern Shore, known for its antique shops. The Ward Museum of Wildfowl Art is the world’s foremost collection of game-related art.
Tourist and Cultural Places – Baltimore is home to Maryland’s most important museums, the Baltimore Museum of
Art, Baltimore City Museum, Walters Art Gallery, Peale Museum, Maryland Historical Society, National Aquarium, Maryland Academy of Sciences and Baltimore Museum of Industry. Other areas of interest include the ‘Star-Spangled Banner’ (the first flag of the United States), the Fort McHenry Historic Monument and Shrine and the National Historical Park Harpers Ferry. As with cultural institutions, Baltimore is also home to the majority. of the art institutions of this state, such as the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, the Baltimore Opera Company, the Maryland Ballet, the Morris A. Mechanic Theater, the Scenic Center and the Project Theater
.– The Baltimore Orioles team competes in the professional baseball league. Ice hockey, basketball, American football, sailing, horse racing, and hunting are other popular sports and activities among the citizens of Maryland.