The first evidence of human presence in Connecticut dates back to 10,000 years before our era. This area was inhabited by several groups of Indians who were part of the Algonquin tribes.
The first exploration of the Connecticut coasts was conducted by the Dutch Adiaen Block who in 1614, who crossed the Connecticut River. Although Block claimed the territory for Holland, his compatriots never settled here. However, it was the English colonists who arrived massively, and in a few years, between 1630 and 1642, they founded numerous settlements including Hartford, New London, Saybrook, Werhersfield and Windsord. The presence of the British, which was estimated at about 20,000 people in 1640, created friction with the indigenous peoples, which caused an inevitable war with some groups, such as the one with the Pequots, in 1637.
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Some of the earliest settlements mentioned above declared themselves colonies. The Connecticut colony was founded in 1636 and the New Haven colony in 1638. Some groups came from other colonies, seeking greater religious freedom, such as the Thomas Hooker group who founded Hartford, from the colony of Massachusetts. The colony of Connecticut, when it was created in 1639, drafted its fundamental principles, a document that is considered the first declared constitution of the United States, hence it was nicknamed the Constitution State. Charles II of England ratified the Connecticut colony territory in 1662 which has since absorbed the colony of New Haven.
In 1776 the settlers of Connecticut massively supported the declaration of independence of the thirteen colonies. The most important figures of this state during the revolution were Nathan Hale, accused of espionage by the British, and Jonathan Trumbull, an adviser to George Washington. During the War
of Independence, pirates from this state emerged to capture English boats, as well as to produce armament and gunpowder for rebel troops. In 1788, Connecticut became the fifth state to accept the United States Constitution of America.
Connecticut’s industry gained a huge reputation, as it took advantage of the innovations of some of its citizens. Among them Eli Whitney who in 1800 designed a cotton gin. Eli Terry who developed the industrial production of watches in 1808, Rodney and Horatio Hanks who in 1810 conceived a system for the production of silk, Salmuel Colt who in 1836 patented the first repeater pistol; Elias Howe who invented the first sewing machine in 1843 and Charles Goodyear who invented a rubber manufacturing process in 1844. The development of its economic activities allowed Connecticut to develop its financial system. This state specialized in the insurance industry,
Connecticut, which from the very beginning of its existence as an independent state, had spoken out against slavery (although slavery did not completely disappear until 1848) participated in the Civil War (1861-1965) as an active supporter of Union. During this contest, its industries played a vital role in supplying the army, armament, through the Colt and Winchester factories, uniforms, blankets and other textiles.
The shipping industry has always stood out in Connecticut. In 1900 the Electric Boat Company built the Holland, the first submarine of the American Navy. According to this tradition, in 1954, in Groton (New London), the “Nautilus”, the first nuclear-powered submarine in the world, was launched. The years leading up to World War II were marked by natural disasters, and in 1936 the state suffered severe flooding caused by the overflow of the Connecticut River, and two years later, the largest hurricane recorded, caused severe human and economic loss. The World War activated the economy of the state although it also had an important social effect, since 210.
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Connecticut was a pioneer in the United States in politics for the benefit of the black population. In 1943, the Interracial Commission was created which became the first official agency to work for civil rights.
Since the 1930s, the Democratic Party has dominated the Connecticut government. The most notable were Governors Wilbur Cross, Chester Bowles, Abraham Ribicoff, John Dempsey and, most importantly, Ella Grasso in 1974 became the first woman elected governor in the United States not to succeed her husband in office.