There are archaeological sites in Arizona dating back to 12,000 years ago. A millennium ago, the main groups that inhabited this territory were, the Anasazi Indians (the ancestors of the Pueblo Indians), the Hohokan (ancestors of the Pima and Papago Indians) and the Mogolon Indians. The Apaches and Navajo Indians, who fought with the Spaniards since the 16th century, arrived in these lands before the first Europeans arrived in Arizona.
The first European who entered the territory of the current state of Arizona was the Franciscan monk Marcos de Niza in 1539. This friar sought The Seven Cities of Cíbola, a place of immense wealth according to a legend that had spread to New Spain. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explored Arizona in search, like Marcos de Niza and with the same success, for legendary cities. A century and a half later, in 1692, Father Eusebio Kino founded twenty-four missions in Arizona. To the missionary fervor, he followed the mining exploitation, since in 1736 the discovery of silver near the city of Nogales attracted many people. As a consequence of these discoveries, the Spaniards built some forts in Tubac and Tucson to defend themselves from the Indians who were threatened by the arrival of the new settlers. The importance that continued to acquire this territory and the new political orientation of the Spanish Crown towards the peripheral territories of its empire, caused them to reorganize administratively, it was part of the province of Sonora, and in 1776 it became part of the western provinces, which in turn formally depended on the Viceroyalty of New Spain, an administrative entity with the capital city of Mexico.
- See Countryaah.com for a full list of counties in Arizona.
After Mexico’s independence in 1821, Arizona was part of the province of Sonora. In 1846, shortly after the war between Mexico and the United States began, US troops seized territory. Arizona after the Mexican defeat was part of the immense territory that Mexico ceded to the United States with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in 1848. The United States created the Territory of New Mexico as an administrative unit to reorganize its enormous expansion territorial. Despite the American colonists’ attempts to declare an independent state, Arizona and the rest of New Mexico were administered by the United States Congress for years. Because of discontent, during the Civil War (1860-1865) the settlers who settled in Arizona declared themselves supporters of the Confederacy. Confederate troops tried to occupy Arizona and New Mexico but failed to control the area. During the War, Congress finally agreed to satisfy the settlers and created the Arizona Territory in 1863, as an independent unit, a first step towards its future admission as a sovereign state in the Union.
Settlers continued to arrive, thanks in part to the arrival of the railroad in 1877, which linked Arizona with the California coast, to build farms and mine gold, silver, and copper. The invasion of the settlers provoked fights between them and the Navajo and Apache Indians. In 1864 Kit Carson organized a campaign against the Navajo Indians which he defeated, but the campaigns against the Apaches led by Cochise and Geronimo continued until 1886 when he obtained the surrender of the latter.
The admission of Arizona as a state of the United States was finally approved in 1912. The first governor was George WP Hunt who was elected seven times, and distinguished himself for the construction of dams and irrigation systems, built to exploit the resources of the Salt, Gila, Verde and Colorado rivers. These works and the mild climate of the Phoenix area allowed for rapid colonization of some areas of the state. The wealth of minerals (especially copper) and agricultural development meant that even during the Great Depression that followed Black Thursday of 1929, Arizona continued to grow demographically and economically. The Second World War allowed a new acceleration of its economy.
- See ejiaxing.org for Arizona state facts, including geography, climate, flora and fauna as well as major cities.
Some factors have allowed the population growth that characterized Arizona to continue, especially between 1950 and 1980 (quadrupling its population in those years). In fact, in the first place the construction of air conditioners in the 50’s allowed a greater demographic growth, many retirees came in search of a mild and dry climate. Secondly, in 1960, Arizona began to develop its own industry, and to pay attention to other sectors, such as tourism, to diversify an economy that until then had been excessively tied to agriculture and mining. Finally, in 1974 construction began on the Central Arizona Project, which allowed for the
Arizona tourism what to see
Tucson – in a valley surrounded by the Santa Catalina Mountains, is a distribution center for vegetables, citrus fruits, cotton, livestock and dairy products, and has rich copper mines. Its industries produce missiles, electronic equipment, steel, paint, soap and clothing. Its warm and dry climate makes it a tourist and holiday center. The most interesting elements of the city are concentrated around the campus of the University of Arizona and the historic center. The Barrio and El Presidio are historic neighborhoods in location.
- See itypemba.com to learn specific information about Phoenix Arizona.
central. El Presidio occupies the area where the Spanish fortress once stood. Today many historic buildings have been used as restaurants, shops and offices. Five of the oldest buildings in El Presidio, including J. Knox Corbett House, are located in the area called the Historic Block. They are part of the Tucson Museum of Art. Southwest of the museum is the 1927 Pima County Courthouse, a fine example of the Spanish colonial revival style. St. Augustine Cathedral, with its imposing sandstone facade, is located southwest of El Presidio. The Barrio Historic District, further south, was once a commercial area. Today it has quiet streets lined with brightly colored baked brick houses. In nearby Main Street is El Tiradito’s “altar of wishes”, in the place where a young man was killed for a matter of love and betrayal. Several museums are located on the campus of the University of Arizona. Just outside the city is the Old Tucson Studios western theme park, originally used as a film set since 1939. Some of the most famous Hollywood westerns were filmed here. The city has a symphony orchestra; nearby are Saguaro National Monument, where giant saguaro cacti can be seen, Coronado National Forest and Tucson Mountain Park. Tucson is home to the University of Arizona (1885).
The Indian village of Stjukshon occupied the area when, at the end of the century. XVII, the Jesuit Eusebio Kino arrived here and founded the mission of San Xavier del Bac. In 1776 a Spanish military post was built there. The region passed to the United States in 1853, and from 1867 to 1877 Tucson was the capital of the Arizona territory. The arrival of the Southern Pacific Railroad (1880) and the discovery of nearby copper and silver deposits ensured its prosperity.
Natural Tourist Attractions – Arizona has numerous national parks, including the Grand Canyon National Park, Scenic Lake Powell, the largest man-made lake in the United States, Petrified Forest National Park,this prehistoric fossil forest is one of Arizona’s most unusual beauties. And the Sonoran desert. Arizona also has other impressive natural beauties: Monument Valley, located on the border with Utah, you can admire the famous spiers, the ancient rocks, which emerge from a seemingly boundless desert, have become the symbol of the West. And the Painted Desert, which runs the length of the petrified forest, made up of strips of colored sand and rocks that take on shades of blue and red throughout the day.
Cultural attractions of Arizona– Among the galleries and museums of the state, the Phoenix Art Museum; the Amerind Foundation Museum, in Dragoon; the Arizona Historical Society Museum, in Tucson; the Arizona State Museum, at the University of Tucson; the Phoenix Desert Botanical Garden; the Fort Huachuca Historical Museum; the Heard Museum of Anthropology and Primitive Art, in Phoenix; the Museum of Northern Arizona, in Flagstaff; and the University of Arizona Museum of Art, in Tucson. Pre-Columbian ruins are also interesting, such as the Chelly Canyon National Monuments, Wupatki, and Montezuma Castle.
In Arizona there are architectural works of great interest such as the house of Taliesin West, by Frank Lloyd Wright or the city of Arcosanti, designed by Paolo Soleri. Examples of Spanish-style architecture also abound, such as the Mission of San Xavier del Bac, a Franciscan monastery from the late 18th century; the building that houses the Heard Museum.
There are various orchestras and theater companies in this state, such as the Arizona Opera Company, the Arizona Theater Company, and the Phoenix and Tucson Symphony Orchestras.
Local art is heavily influenced by Indian traditions, particularly the artistic expressions of the Navajo and Hopi Indians, with works in silver, pottery, wicker and textiles.
The most popular shows are rodeos, the most popular sports are basketball, where the Phoenix Suns team emerges, and American football, with the Arizona Cardinals professional team.