History in Guatemala
Throughout the history of Guatemala, many events have taken place, despite the fact that this is a small state. The name was given to her by the Indian tribes who have inhabited the Peten Plateau since ancient times. Translated Guatemala means “fertile land”. Developing, the tribes united among themselves, inhabited more and more territories, and by the 300th century AD, a whole civilization known as the Maya had arisen. These people worshiped their gods, performed cruel rituals of sacrifice, however, they had their own script and culture. From the 4th to the 9th centuries, there was a rapid development of the empire. During this time, cities such as Tikal, Huaxactun, Palenque, Quirigua, Copan, Yaxchilan and Bonampak were built. Intricate stelae and pyramids, sacrificial altars, religious temples have survived to this day. Maya Indians were a very warlike people, due to civil strife and frequent wars, by the 9th century there was a decline in civilization. As a result of disunity, only a few tribes remained throughout the territory: Kiche, Kekchi and Kaqchikel. In general terms, they were similar to the Maya Indians.
In the 16th century, a detachment of canquistadors, sent from Mexico by Hernan Cortes, came to the territory of Guatemala. After several battles, they captured the main cities and completely broke the resistance of the locals. On July 25, 1524, the city of Iximche was proclaimed the capital of the new Spanish Guatemala – However, due to constant earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, the capital was repeatedly transferred to various cities. From 1543 to 1773 the capital was the city now known as Antigua. After another devastating earthquake, it was decided to transfer the capital again. Since then and to this day, Guatemala City has been the main city of the country. The official name was received in 1776, it sounds like this – New Assumption Guatemala (Nueva Guatemala de la Asuncion). The city became a kind of center of Central America.
Despite the remoteness of the country from the main centers of wars, some events in world history, and, in particular, the war with Napoleon, the war for the independence of the United States and Mexico, left their mark on the history of Guatemala. As a result of these events, in 1839 it gained independence, however, at the beginning of the 20th century a dictatorial regime was established. The first tyrant was Manuel Estrada Cabrera, the second was Jorge Ubico Castañeda. Their policy was almost completely under the control of the United States. Naturally, this regime did not suit everyone, so for 20 years there was a civil war. It was not until 1995 that the first democratic elections took place, which were won by Alvaro Arsu Yrigoyen. Since then, the country has been a full-fledged participant in international relations.
Religion in Guatemala
Most Guatemalans are Catholics. The indigenous population adheres to ancient religions.
Transport in Guatemala
La Aurora International Airport is located in Guatemala City. The main cities of the country are connected by domestic airlines. In 2000, a new highway was built to Flores. It passes through the rather dangerous Petén area, so tourists should not go on their own. Local buses are a relatively inexpensive mode of transport. Driving on the roads is difficult in the rainy season, as they are very washed out. Tourists should not travel by intercity buses at night. If you decide to rent a car, then a credit card is not needed, only a deposit will be taken from you.
Plant and Animal World in Guatemala
The tropical forests of Guatemala are home to about 250 species of mammals, 600 species of birds, about 200 species of reptiles, a great variety of insects and motley butterflies. The national bird of the country, depicted on the coat of arms and flag of the state, has become the quetzal bird. Also here you can see parrots, toucans, hummingbirds.
The vegetation is represented by more than 8000 species. Mangrove forests are located on the coasts of the country, pine and oak forests – on the slopes of mountains and at considerable heights, the plains are occupied by tropical forests. Of the valuable tree species, one can distinguish dalbergia (rosewood), akazhu (mahogany), cypress. About 600 species of orchids grow in humid forests.
Banks in Guatemala
On weekdays, banks are open from 9 am to 5 pm. On Saturday they are open from 9 am to 2 pm.
Money in Guatemala
The national currency is the quetzal. 1 quetzal is equal to 100 centavos. In circulation there are banknotes in denominations of 500, 200, 100, 50, 20 and 10 quetzal and coins in 50, 20, 10 and 5 centavos.
It is best to take US dollars on a trip, since almost all exchange points have difficulties with exchanging any other currency. Credit cards are accepted everywhere.
Rate: 10 Guatemalan Quetzal (GTQ) = 1.23 USD
Political State in Guatemala
According to politicsezine, Guatemala is a republic. The head of government is the president.
Population in Guatemala
The population of the country is about 14 million people. The indigenous and most numerous people are the Indians. Many Indians still follow the customs of the Maya. In addition to the Indians, Ladino (mestizo) live here.
Spanish is the official language. The descendants of the Maya still speak Indian dialects today.
Cuisine in Guatemala
In the national cuisine of Guatemala, meat dishes, game dishes, grilled or stewed are the main ones. Vegetables, corn, beans and beans are served as a side dish. By tradition, the meal ends with a cup of aromatic Guatemalan coffee.