Geography of Hawaii County, Hawaii

Hawaii County, located in the southeastern part of the island chain in the state of Hawaii, encompasses the largest land area and offers a diverse range of geographical features, climate patterns, rivers, lakes, and cultural heritage. Spanning an area of approximately 4,028 square miles, Hawaii County comprises several distinct regions, including active volcanoes, lush rainforests, rugged coastlines, and fertile agricultural lands. In this comprehensive exploration, we will delve into the geography, climate, rivers, lakes, and other notable features of Hawaii County, Hawaii.


According to itypejob, Hawaii County, often referred to as the “Big Island,” is the largest of the Hawaiian Islands and is composed of five main shield volcanoes: Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Kohala. Each volcano contributes to the island’s diverse topography, with Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa rising to heights of over 13,000 feet above sea level. The island is also home to deep valleys, steep cliffs, black sand beaches, and coral reefs along its coastline. Hawaii County is divided into nine districts, each with its own unique landscape and character.


The climate of Hawaii County varies dramatically depending on elevation and location, but it is generally characterized by two main climatic zones: tropical rainforest and tropical savanna.

  • Tropical Rainforest: The eastern and windward side of the island, including areas such as Hilo and the Hamakua Coast, experiences a tropical rainforest climate. This region receives abundant rainfall throughout the year, with precipitation levels ranging from 100 to 200 inches annually. Temperatures are mild, with average highs in the low to mid-80s Fahrenheit (around 27-30 degrees Celsius).
  • Tropical Savanna: The western and leeward side of the island, including areas such as Kona and South Kohala, features a tropical savanna climate. This region is drier and sunnier than the windward side, with rainfall averaging between 20 to 60 inches per year. Temperatures are warmer, with average highs in the mid to upper 80s Fahrenheit (around 29-32 degrees Celsius).

Volcanoes and Lava Flows:

Hawaii County is renowned for its active volcanoes, which have shaped the island’s landscape and provided fertile soil for agriculture. The most notable volcanoes include:

  • Kilauea: Kilauea is one of the world’s most active volcanoes and has been continuously erupting since 1983. It is located within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and is known for its lava flows, steam vents, and volcanic craters. Visitors can explore the park’s hiking trails, scenic overlooks, and visitor centers to learn about the island’s geological history.
  • Mauna Loa: Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on Earth by volume and is considered one of the most massive mountains in the world. It has erupted numerous times throughout history, with its most recent eruption occurring in 1984. Mauna Loa is popular among hikers and backpackers, who can traverse its rugged terrain and summit at over 13,000 feet above sea level.
  • Mauna Kea: Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in Hawaii, reaching a height of over 13,000 feet above sea level. It is home to several astronomical observatories due to its clear skies and minimal light pollution. Visitors can drive to the summit or participate in guided tours to learn about astronomy and Hawaiian culture.

Rivers and Lakes:

Despite its volcanic origins, Hawaii County is not known for its rivers and lakes due to the permeable nature of the island’s volcanic rock. However, there are several streams and ponds scattered throughout the island, which are important sources of freshwater for local communities and wildlife.

  • Wailuku River: The Wailuku River is one of the largest rivers on the island and flows through Hilo, the largest city in Hawaii County. It originates from the slopes of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa and provides water for agriculture, hydroelectric power, and recreational activities such as kayaking and fishing.
  • Lake Waiau: Lake Waiau is a small alpine lake located near the summit of Mauna Kea at an elevation of over 13,000 feet. It is one of the highest lakes in the United States and holds cultural significance for Native Hawaiians. The lake is fed by snowmelt and precipitation and provides habitat for unique plant and animal species.

Beaches and Coastline:

Hawaii County is renowned for its stunning beaches and rugged coastline, which attract millions of visitors each year for swimming, snorkeling, surfing, and sunbathing.

  • Hapuna Beach: Hapuna Beach is one of the most popular and picturesque beaches on the island, known for its white sand, clear turquoise waters, and gentle waves. It offers excellent swimming and snorkeling opportunities, as well as amenities such as picnic areas and restrooms.
  • Punaluu Black Sand Beach: Punaluu Black Sand Beach is famous for its jet-black sand, created by the erosion of volcanic rock over time. It is located on the southeastern coast of the island and is known for its sea turtles, which often bask on the beach’s shores.
  • Green Sand Beach: Papakolea Beach, also known as Green Sand Beach, is located near the southern tip of the island and is famous for its distinctive olive-green sand. The green color comes from the presence of the mineral olivine, which is found in the surrounding volcanic rock. Access to the beach requires a hike or a four-wheel-drive vehicle.

Agriculture and Plantations:

Despite its volcanic terrain, Hawaii County is home to fertile agricultural lands that support a variety of crops, including coffee, macadamia nuts, tropical fruits, and vegetables.

  • Kona Coffee: The Kona District on the western side of the island is renowned for its high-quality coffee, grown in the volcanic soil on the slopes of Mauna Loa and Hualalai. Kona coffee is prized for its smooth flavor and rich aroma and is a popular souvenir for visitors to the island.
  • Macadamia Nut Orchards: Hawaii County is one of the leading producers of macadamia nuts in the world, with orchards located primarily on the western side of the island. Macadamia nuts are harvested from the trees’ hard shells and are used in a variety of culinary applications, including snacks, baked goods, and confections.

Cultural Heritage:

Hawaii County has a rich cultural heritage shaped by its indigenous Hawaiian roots, as well as influences from Asian, European, and American settlers.

  • Native Hawaiian Culture: Native Hawaiian traditions, language, and customs are deeply ingrained in the fabric of Hawaii County’s identity. Visitors can experience authentic Hawaiian culture through hula performances, traditional ceremonies, and visits to cultural sites such as ancient heiaus (temples) and petroglyphs.
  • Multicultural Communities: Hawaii County is home to diverse communities from around the world, including Japanese, Filipino, Chinese, and Portuguese immigrants who came to the island to work on sugar plantations in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Their cultural heritage is celebrated through festivals, cuisine, and traditions that have become an integral part of Hawaiian culture.
  • Arts and Crafts: Local artisans and craftsmen create a wide range of traditional and contemporary arts and crafts inspired by Hawaiian culture and natural beauty. Visitors can explore galleries, craft fairs, and cultural centers to learn about traditional Hawaiian crafts such as lei-making, quilting, and wood carving.


Hawaii County, Hawaii, is a region of unparalleled natural beauty, diverse geography, and rich cultural heritage. From its towering volcanoes and lush rainforests to its stunning beaches and vibrant communities, the island offers a unique blend of adventure, relaxation, and cultural immersion. Whether exploring the volcanic landscapes, snorkeling in crystal-clear waters, or experiencing traditional Hawaiian culture, Hawaii County invites visitors to discover the magic and aloha spirit of the Hawaiian Islands.

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