Geography of Hawaii County, Hawaii

Geography of Hawaii County, Hawaii

Hawaii County, located on the island of Hawaii, commonly referred to as the “Big Island,” is a region of unparalleled natural beauty and geological diversity. From its towering volcanoes and lush rainforests to its stunning beaches and vibrant coral reefs, Hawaii County offers a breathtaking landscape shaped by millions of years of volcanic activity and ecological evolution.┬áCheck travelationary to learn more about the state of Hawaii.

Physical Features:

  • Volcanoes: Hawaii County is home to some of the world’s most active and iconic volcanoes, including Mauna Loa and Kilauea. Mauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth in terms of volume and mass, rises over 13,000 feet above sea level and covers more than half of the island of Hawaii. Kilauea, one of the most active volcanoes on the planet, has been erupting continuously since 1983, reshaping the island’s landscape with lava flows and volcanic activity. These volcanoes, along with others such as Mauna Kea and Hualalai, are not only geological marvels but also cultural and spiritual symbols for the native Hawaiian people.
  • Beaches: Hawaii County boasts some of the world’s most beautiful and pristine beaches, with soft white sands and crystal-clear waters that attract visitors from around the globe. From the black sands of Punaluu Beach to the golden shores of Hapuna Beach, the county offers a wide range of beach destinations for sunbathing, swimming, snorkeling, and water sports. Beach parks and resorts along the coastline provide amenities such as picnic areas, restrooms, and lifeguard services for visitors’ convenience and enjoyment.
  • Rainforests: The eastern side of Hawaii County is covered in lush rainforests, characterized by dense vegetation, towering trees, and cascading waterfalls. The Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden, Akaka Falls State Park, and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park showcase the county’s rich biodiversity and ecological importance, with rare plant species, endangered birds, and unique ecosystems found nowhere else on Earth. These rainforests are not only havens for wildlife but also provide opportunities for hiking, birdwatching, and nature photography in a pristine natural setting.
  • Coral Reefs: The waters surrounding Hawaii County are home to vibrant coral reefs teeming with marine life, including colorful fish, sea turtles, and reef sharks. The Kealakekua Bay Marine Life Conservation District, the Honaunau Bay Marine Sanctuary, and the Puako Reef Conservation Area are just a few of the protected areas that showcase the county’s underwater beauty and ecological diversity. Snorkeling, diving, and glass-bottom boat tours offer opportunities to explore these coral reefs and observe their inhabitants up close.


Hawaii County experiences a tropical climate, characterized by warm temperatures, high humidity, and abundant rainfall year-round. The climate varies significantly depending on elevation and location, with coastal areas experiencing warmer temperatures and drier conditions than upland regions.

Coastal areas of Hawaii County typically have temperatures ranging from the mid-70s to the mid-80s Fahrenheit throughout the year. Trade winds from the northeast provide natural air conditioning, cooling the coastline and creating pleasant conditions for outdoor activities such as beachgoing and water sports. Rainfall is generally highest in the winter months, from November to March, when storms and frontal systems bring heavy rain and occasional thunderstorms to the islands.

Upland areas of Hawaii County, particularly those near the volcanoes, tend to be cooler and wetter than coastal regions. As elevation increases, temperatures decrease, and precipitation levels rise, creating a diverse range of microclimates and ecosystems. The rain shadow effect of the volcanoes can also create dry areas on the leeward side of the island, where rainfall is limited, and vegetation is sparse.

Human Impact:

  • Tourism: Tourism is a significant driver of the economy in Hawaii County, supporting thousands of jobs and generating billions of dollars in revenue each year. Visitors are drawn to the county’s natural beauty, cultural attractions, and outdoor recreational opportunities, including volcano tours, helicopter flights, luaus, and traditional Hawaiian cultural experiences. Hotels, resorts, restaurants, and tour operators cater to the needs of tourists, providing accommodations, dining options, and guided excursions to explore the island’s attractions and landmarks.
  • Agriculture: Agriculture has been an important economic activity in Hawaii County for centuries, with farmers cultivating crops such as coffee, macadamia nuts, tropical fruits, and flowers. The fertile volcanic soils and favorable climate of the island provide ideal conditions for agriculture, supporting a diverse range of crops and farming practices. Sustainable agriculture initiatives, organic farming methods, and agrotourism activities are becoming increasingly popular, as farmers and producers seek to preserve the island’s natural resources and cultural heritage.
  • Conservation: Efforts to conserve and protect Hawaii County’s natural resources are a priority for residents, businesses, and government agencies. Conservation initiatives focus on preserving critical habitats, protecting endangered species, and promoting sustainable land use practices. Organizations such as the Nature Conservancy, the Hawaii Island Land Trust, and the Department of Land and Natural Resources work to safeguard the county’s natural beauty and ecological integrity through research, education, and advocacy.

Cultural Significance:

In addition to its natural beauty, Hawaii County holds immense cultural significance for the native Hawaiian people, who have lived on the islands for thousands of years. The county is rich in cultural heritage, with traditional practices, customs, and beliefs deeply rooted in the land and sea. Sacred sites, heiaus (temples), and petroglyphs offer glimpses into Hawaii’s ancient past, while hula performances, lei-making workshops, and cultural festivals celebrate the island’s vibrant Polynesian culture and heritage.

In conclusion, Hawaii County, Hawaii, offers a breathtaking landscape characterized by its volcanoes, beaches, rainforests, and coral reefs. From the summit of Mauna Kea to the depths of Kealakekua Bay, the county boasts a wealth of natural beauty and resources that attract visitors from around the world. While facing challenges such as climate change, development pressures, and conservation efforts, Hawaii County remains a vibrant and resilient region, with a strong connection to its natural heritage, cultural identity, and the spirit of aloha.

About the author