Equatorial Guinea – an African country that was formerly a Spanish colony, is a republic in Central Africa with borders to Cameroon, Gabon and the Bay of Biafra in the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the smallest countries in Africa.
According to hyperrestaurant, the country is divided into a mainland and an island part. These are the Bioko Islands (formerly Fernando Pó and Macías Nguema) as well as the Pigalu Islands (formerly Annobón, Corisco, Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico), totaling 2,034 km2. The mainland is adjacent to the Gulf of Guinea (Río Muni, at 26,017 km2). The islands have volcanic origins and contain very fertile soils. Río Muni is a coastal plain covered by tropical rainforest and without natural harbors. It is one of the most humid and rainy countries on earth, which limits the nature of the crops. The country’s most serious environmental problem is the use of the island of Pigalu as a landfill for toxic industrial waste and highly radioactive waste.
The human rights situation in Equatorial Guinea is highly criticized. Equatorial Guinea has officially had multi-party rule and freedom of the press since 1992, but the government continues to apply repressive laws, arrests and accusations in order to restrict political freedom and democratic rights.
Despite the sharp rises in GDP, there is a wide poverty gap in Equatorial Guinea, and oil wealth is thus concentrated in very few hands. The country is plagued by widespread corruption, and the IMF and World Bank have criticized the government for not implementing the necessary economic reforms.
Equatorial Guinea has long had a strained relationship with its neighbors due to disagreements over maritime demarcation. This is primarily due to presumptions about new oil deposits in the border areas. An agreement on the definition of the maritime border was concluded with Sao Tome and Principe in 1999, just as an agreement was signed with Nigeria in September 2000. In January 2004, Equatorial Guinea agreed with Gabon to have a UN-designated dealer draw up the maritime border between the two countries in the Gulf of Corisco. However, tensions continue to rise despite the negotiations. The United States in particular has been pushing for a quick solution to the border disputes so that oil drilling can begin.
Denmark’s exports to Equatorial Guinea in 2006 amounted to DKK 9.7 million, while imports in the same year amounted to DKK 0.3 million.
13th Century – Around the 13th century, the people settled and ndowe settled in the area known today as Río Muni. They displaced the pygmy population (bayele), of which only small groups exist today. The Fang and Ndowe peoples also spread to the islands, which in the 15th century were described as “densely populated”.
1471 – The island of Bioko was discovered in 1471 by the Portuguese explorer Fernando de Poo and became a Portuguese colony until it was ceded to Spain in 1778.
1885 – The mainland becomes a Spanish protectorate in 1885 and a colony in 1900.
1968 – Equatorial Guinea becomes independent in 1968 after 190 years as the Spanish colony, Spanish Guinea. The current president, Mbasogo, has ruled the country since seizing power in a 1979 coup.
1986 – In June, the regime escalates detentions following a coup attempt involving Deputy Prime Minister Fructuoso Mba Onana.
2001 – President Mbasogo overthrows his own government over corruption and “unwillingness to respect the majority of the population”.
2002 – President Obiang has a strong grip on political institutions, the press and the army, which means there is no real opposition. In the 2002 presidential election, President Obiang officially obtained 97.1% of the vote. However, the election was marked by serious irregularities, which is why the opposition chose to withdraw its candidates. In the 2004 parliamentary elections, the president’s party, the Partido Democratico de Guinea Ecuatorial (PDGE), secured 98 of the 100 seats in parliament. Observers considered the course of the election to be better than the previous elections, but the parliamentary elections were also marked by serious irregularities. The next presidential election will take place in December 2009.
2004 In March, a suspected coup attempt led by mercenaries from mainly South Africa was averted. Mark Thatcher, son of former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, was arrested in Cape Town in 2004 on suspicion of being behind the financing of a planned coup against President Teodoro Obiang Nguema in the capital. In addition to Mark Thatcher, 69 other people were arrested in a number of African cities. The majority of these were South Africans. President Obiang’s special adviser Miguel Mifunoo claimed, among other things, that Spain had supported the coup attempt against the president and proclaimed that Spain had sent 500 marines to the country to assassinate the president. At the same time, he claimed that the Spanish government supported the resistance movement with both money and weapons. A spokesman for the government in Madrid denied allegations that
2005 – In February, a cholera epidemic broke out, instantly causing the main cause of death on the island of Bioko, where the capital Malabo is also located. 3-5 dead were buried daily in the cemetery, and in a single day the number reached 30. The epidemic threatened to spread to the whole country – like malaria – as 80% of the population lives below the poverty line.
2006 – A report by the Committee on the Protection of Journalists from May places Equatorial Guinea as the African country with the most extensive censorship. The report pointed out that: “access to communication is 100% in the hands of the country’s power elite”. In the country, there is only one private radio and TV station owned by the president’s son.
2007 – In April, the opposition party, the Association for Social Democracy, called on the international community to monitor the municipal elections, which are to be held in 2008-09. Iflg. the opposition party, as in previous elections, Obiang will seek to hold a public referendum and prevent the participation of international observers. The government has not invited either the opposition or international organizations to participate in the organization of the elections, which is seen as a sign that the elections will be marked by fraud.