Connecticut, abbreviated CT and Conn., is a state of New England in the United States, bordering New York in the west, Massachusetts in the north, Rhode Island in the east and Long Island Sound in the south.
Connecticut has a total area of approximately 14,350 km2 (the third smallest state by area), and has 3,588,184 residents (US Census, 2017). Connecticut became the fifth state in the United States on January 9, 1788. The capital is Hartford, and the largest city is Bridgeport. The state’s highest point is on the south side of Mount Frissell toward the Massachusetts border (725 ft.) And its average height is 150 ft.
The name Connecticut is of Algonquian Quinnehtukqut, ‘by the long tidal river’. The state is also referred to as Constitution State or Nutmeg State.
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Connecticut covers the southern highlands of New England. The western and eastern part consist of altitude ridges, which reach the altitude of 700 m as far as the northwest. (Berkshire Hills). The middle part is dominated by the Connecticut River, which forms a wide, low-lying and fertile valley.
Population growth was 2.5 per cent between 1970 and 1980, which was significantly lower than the national average. In the decade 1980-90 it increased to 5.8 per cent, in 1990-2000 3.3 per cent, and in 2000-2010 growth was 4.9 per cent. 67 percent of residents are considered white – many of whom are descendants of British, Italian, German and Polish immigrants – 11.9 percent black and 16.1 percent Hispanic (US Census, 2017).
The state is among the most densely populated in the United States. Most live on the coast and along the Connecticut River. About 90 percent live in cities. The largest cities are Bridgeport with 146 579 residents, New Haven with 131 014 residents, Stamford with 130 824 residents and the capital Hartford with 123 400 residents (US Census, 2017). All of the southwest part of the state (Fairfield County), including the cities of Bridgeport, Stamford, Norwalk and Greenwich, is strongly oriented toward New York City and forms a contiguous suburban area.
Connecticut sends two senators and five representatives to the Washington Congress in Washington DC.
Agriculture plays a small role in the economy, and the number of farms has declined sharply. Dairy products are still of great importance, otherwise vegetables are grown for local consumption. Along the Connecticut River, some tobacco is also grown.
The industry employs approximately 1 / 4 of the working population. Important products are jet engines, sewing machines, watches, ball bearings, metal products and electrical equipment. The state is otherwise well known for its weapons industry, with the production of submarines, helicopters and rifles. Many major US insurance companies are headquartered in the state, and Hartford is often called “The Insurance City.”
Higher education institutions include Yale University in New Haven, founded in 1701, the State University of Storrs, founded in 1881, Wesleyan University, Middletown, founded in 1831, and the US Coast Guard Academy in New London, founded in 1876.
The coast was explored and the Connecticut River discovered by Dutchman Adriaen Block in 1614. The first permanent settlement of colonists came from Massachusetts Bay in 1635-1636. The first US Constitution (Fundamental Orders) was adopted here in 1639.
Connecticut ratified the United States Constitution in 1788 as the 5th of the original 13 states. During the War of Great Britain in 1814, Connecticut was the scene of separatist expulsions from the New England States (Hartford Convention).