China Population and Economic Conditions

According to Searchforpublicschools, coastal regions are also those that most clearly appear to be aimed at completing the demographic transition. In the whole of China the population continues to grow, but the growth rate has slowed down, and in any case it is much lower than the growth of GDP (so that the GDP per resident has experienced a spectacular increase, despite the absolute low level) ; in the industrialized and urbanized coastal regions, population growth would have stopped for some time, were it not for the very strong immigration which has resumed since the 1980s and which is the cause of the general strong increase in the urban population. In the past, the members of the current Chinese communities abroad have departed from these same regions, both in America and in Southeast Asia (Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand).

The urban layout presents a much greater dynamism than in previous decades. The main cities, especially those where there are special economic zones or free ports, were allocated the function of guiding the corresponding inland areas, a real Hinterland exclusive, and to dialogue with foreign countries (starting with Japan and South Korea). The growing concentration, however, is beginning to pose problems of the general layout of the territory and of rebalancing between inland and coastal areas. On the other hand, it is in the urban areas that most of the extraordinary production increase that characterized the nineties in the China an increase that has already allowed the considerable increase in trade and the return to surplus of the trade balance, making China one of the top ten countries in the world by volume of trade.

Industrialization, in these areas, now involves almost all sectors; those textiles, mechanics, chemicals, clothing, electronics and food are the most solid and branched. From the Chinese point of view, and despite the shrewd gradualness with which the new economic policy of the country is being conducted, the development of the coastal area is of strategic importance, to the point that any limitation to its expansion could entail an intolerable brake on the growth of the country. whole China. Even by foreign companies, which have found good investment opportunities (there are about 140. 000 joint enterprises, with a total foreign investment in place of about 50 billions of dollars) and who, in the very short term, expect to find an outlet market of incomparable size, a reduction in the economic potential of China Costiera would represent little less than a return to traditional isolationist politics. Nonetheless, the abandonment of the countryside is creating very serious problems both in terms of a regular food supply (although China has proved capable, in recent years, of exporting cereals and other foods), and with regard to the maintenance of rural environments substantially artificial after millennia of human interventions, where abandonment can trigger a real series of ‘natural’ disasters. This also explains the oscillation of the Chinese government between liberalizing pressures and authoritarian squeezes.

On the other hand, the enhancement of the resources of inland regions continues unabated by the public authorities (while the coastal ones make use of self-propelled capacities and foreign capital), thanks to the construction of infrastructures (hydraulic and hydroelectric installations, communication routes, pipelines) and to the discovery of new important mineral deposits (coal, oil, methane). An adequate exploitation of the latter, which would allow a part of the population to be retained, requires huge investments to send the product to the coast: it is in the coastal regions, moreover, that the civil and industrial demand is greater, while the inland industries (mainly publicly owned), undergoing conversion or dismantling,

Ultimately, the residents of inland areas continue to have mainly agro-zootechnical and mining basic products available, in a situation that effectively sanctions the failure of the internal industrialization policy, attempted for decades. Although a large part of agricultural production (but not of mining production) has now been liberalized, the value of primary products in China remains, as in Western economies, far below that guaranteed by processing or service activities; consequently, in a system that is definitely transforming itself into a market, the attraction exercised by industrial and tertiary cities will continue, despite the presence of very significant resources in inland regions. The growing mechanization of agriculture acts in the same way,

In essence, China risks having to live the contradictions typical of market economy countries, unless state intervention regains the upper hand by coherently reorienting regional developments. Precisely on this front, however, there are concerns, given the growing state deficit, produced by the malfunctioning of the administration and the need to support loss-making public enterprises to graduate closures and avoid social tensions.

China Population and Economic Conditions

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