Religion in Canada
About 77% of believing Canadians are Christians (mostly Catholics and Protestants), Orthodox Christians account for about 3%. The rest of the believing population are adherents of Judaism, Islam and Buddhism. 10% of the country’s population consider themselves atheists.
Transport in Canada
Flights are regularly operated from Moscow to Toronto, other major Canadian cities can be reached by plane with transfers in European countries. There are 13 international airports in Canada. In addition, Canada has rail and bus links to the United States. The best way to travel long distances within the country is by plane although air travel is quite expensive. Local airlines connect about 60 major cities. On the coasts, you can use water transport, mainly ferries. For example, water transport is most convenient for getting from the Atlantic coast to the Great Lakes.
Canada has an extensive rail network. Canadian trains are very comfortable. The train ticket can be booked in advance. The bus network also covers the entire country, but long-distance bus journeys are more tiring and more expensive than train journeys.
Inside the cities, it is best to travel by bus. They follow a strict schedule. Tickets can be purchased at tobacco or newsstands or from the driver, and they are not one-time tickets, their validity period is up to two hours from the moment of landing, during the validity of the ticket you have the right to travel on any route. There are also travel tickets valid from 1 day to 1 month. Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary, and Edmonton all have subways. In addition, in the cities you can use taxi services.
In order to rent a car, you must be at least 23 years old, have an international driver’s license and a driving experience of at least 3 years (in some companies – at least 5 years).
Plant and Animal World in Canada
The northern islands of Canada are covered with snow for almost a whole year. The north of the mainland of the country up to the Labrador Peninsula is occupied by tundra vegetation – dwarf trees, mosses, lichens and grasses. To the south, the taiga stretches, where conifers predominate: black and white spruce, pine, larch and thuja. On the Pacific coast, coniferous forests consist of Douglas and Sitka firs, as well as Alaskan and red cedars, on the Atlantic coast – of balsam fir, black and red spruce, cedar and American larch. South of the taiga in eastern Canada are broad-leaved forests dominated by poplar, oak, maple, alder, birch and willow. In the western part of the country, from Lake Winnipeg to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, a steppe zone extends, which in North America is called the prairie. It is mainly occupied by agricultural land, but sagebrush, bearded vulture and feather grass are also found here. Strawberry tree and Oregon oak grow on the southern borders of Canada near Vancouver, and American elm, Weymouth pine, Canadian train, oak, chestnut and beech grow in the Niagara region. The climate of these areas allows the cultivation of grapes, apricots and peaches.
The fauna of Canada is also very diverse. In the tundra you can see polar bears, reindeer, musk oxen, tundra wolves, arctic foxes, polar hares and lemmings. Grizzly bears, Canadian lynxes, cougars, wolves, foxes, wolverines, caribou, red deer, elks, martens, sables, beavers and otters live in the vast taiga zone. Bighorn sheep and bighorn goats are found in the mountainous regions, and bison have been preserved in the reserves. In the steppes, the main inhabitants are rodents: field mice, moles and ground squirrels. On numerous lakes of the country and along the coasts, colonies of a wide variety of birds settle. Numerous species of fish live in freshwater reservoirs and in coastal sea waters.
Minerals in Canada
Canada is rich in mineral deposits. The country produces oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, copper, polymetallic ores, uranium, gold, silver, asbestos and potassium salts.
Banks in Canada
Banks are open on weekdays from 9:00 to 17:00. Many currency exchange offices operate around the clock.
Money in Canada
The official currency of the country is the Canadian dollar. 1 Canadian dollar equals 100 cents. In circulation there are banknotes of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollars and coins of 1 and 2 dollars, as well as 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents.
Foreign currency can be exchanged at exchange offices and banks, hotels, airports, railway and bus stations charge a commission for the exchange. Tourists are advised to take travelers checks or credit cards, which are widely used in Canada. Traveler’s checks should be purchased in Canadian dollars or US dollars to avoid additional exchange costs.
Rate: 1 Canadian Dollar (CAD) = 0.78 USD
Political State in Canada
According to politicsezine, Canada is part of the Commonwealth of Nations and is a constitutional monarchy in terms of government. The nominal head of state is the British monarch, but his powers are symbolic. In the country, he is represented by the Governor General, who is appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Canadian Prime Minister for a period of 5 years. Legislative power is vested in a bicameral Parliament consisting of the Senate and the House of Commons. Executive power is concentrated in the hands of the government – the cabinet of ministers headed by the prime minister. The leader of the party that wins the majority of votes in parliamentary elections becomes prime minister.
Canada is a federal state consisting of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
Population in Canada
Most of the population of Canada – the descendants of immigrants from England – (Anglophones) (44%) and France (francophones) (28%). The indigenous peoples of the country are Indians, mestizos and Eskimos, who together make up about 3% of the total population. The rest of the population is from other European countries and from the countries of Southeast Asia. About 40,000 citizens of Russian origin also live in Canada.
In Canada, two official languages are English and French, however, French is widely used only in the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. It is worth noting that the province of New Brunswick is the only one in Canada where the provision on bilingualism is enshrined in the constitution, in other provinces, with the exception of Quebec, English is the official language according to the constitution. In some northern Canadian territories, the mother tongues of Canada’s small indigenous peoples are also recognized as official languages.
Cuisine in Canada
The cuisine of Canada has been influenced by the culinary traditions of many countries from which immigrants came. From the first courses, vegetable soups are traditional, as well as broths with croutons, homemade noodles, green beans and herbs. From meat and fish dishes, “fillet brochette” (skewer of fillet tenderloin, bacon, mushrooms and onions), chicken fried on a spit, sturgeon, boiled venison, hare or rabbit stewed with vegetables and kidney pie are popular. Pasta and noodles that came from Southeast Asia and Italy have become widespread. Pates, cheeses, boiled pork, smoked herring and seafood are prepared as snacks. Maple syrup is an integral part of Canadian desserts. With its use, all kinds of pancakes, buns, pies and muffins are made.
Of the alcoholic beverages, beer varieties “Labatt” and “Molson” and local whiskey are especially popular.