The Thirties were marked in poetry by two prominent figures, opposed to each other: Migjeni (1911-1938), whose Free Verses (1936) inaugurate the socially inspired lyric with clear references to leftist ideology; and Poradeci(1899-1988), who with the collection of lyrics The star of the heart (1937) develops profound meditations on nature and at the same time investigates human feelings. In the prose we highlight the comedy The curse of the Albanian language and the drama La morte di Pirro by Mihal Grameno (1871-1931); the novel The flower of memory (1922), which deals with facts relating to national independence, by Foqiol Postoli (1889-1927); the novel by Haki Stërmilli (1895-1953) Se fossi male(1936), about the authoritarianism of the patriarchal family; and the short stories of Ernest Koliqi (1903-1975) The shadows of the mountains (1928) and Merchant of flags (1935), on traditional Albanian life, appreciated for its richness and linguistic refinement. With the Second World War Albanian literature underwent a radical change, it embraced the theories of socialist realism and until the collapse of the regime it moved exclusively in its field. In the context of epic-lyric poetry, numerous contributions come from Aleks Caçi (1916-1989) and Andrea Varfi (b. 1914), on the reality that is affirming itself in Albanian society; by Llazar Siliqi (1924-1989) and by Ismail Kadaré (b. 1936), with a breath that goes beyond the problems of the present; by Fatos Arapi (b. 1930) and by Dritëro Agolli (1931-2017), which are inspired by social and ethnic reasons. Among the dissident poets, whom the government has tried in every way to silence, the name of Bilal Xhaferri (1935-1987) stands out, tragically killed by the political police, capable of a poem of denunciation with both dramatic and ironic accents. After the collapse of the regime, the role of many intellectuals linked to the past was greatly reduced, and even Albanian poetry experienced a moment of serious crisis. However, in the years following the 1990s, some young poets emerged who happily abandoned the epic tones and the realist dimension typical of regime poetry, among which Jozef Radi (b.1957), Ferdinand Laholli (b. 1960 in an internment camp for political prisoners), Ihran Jubica (b.1973, editor of the Albanian culture magazine Ars). Among women, the names of Mimosa Ahmeti (b.1963), Flutura Acka (b.1966) and Luljeta Lleshanaku (b.1968) must be remembered.
The Albanians of Italy from the post-war period to today have experienced a significant literary season that mainly affects poetry. Belonging to an ethnic group other than Italian, the bond with the land of origin, with the country as the cradle of the transmission of traditional culture, with the land as a symbol of cultural identity, are the recurring motifs in Vorea Ujko’s lyrics. (1931-1989), Giuseppe Schirò di Maggio (b.1944), Kate Zuccaro (b.1955) and many other valid writers. On the other hand, the poet Gëzim Hajdari (b.1957) was born in Albania, a country located in Europe according to medicinelearners.com, despite having lived in Italy for years, author of two popular collections in Italian and recent winner of the Montale Prize. In Albany, in the prose and in particular in the novel, we note, especially in the fifties and sixties, the same themes present in poetry: the struggle for liberation, the heroism of the progressive characters against the reactionaries, the successes in the implementation of the programs. We report the most qualified exponents: Sterjo Spasse (1914-1989), who, after the publication of the novel Why? (1935) on the state of pessimism that agitates the young protagonist, passes to socialist realism with They were not alone(1952) on the problem of peasant poverty, to arrive in 1974 in the cycle of novels known as the Renaissance; Fatmir Gjata (1922-1989), who lives the literary experience with his mind turned to the struggles for national liberation and reconstruction (La palude, 1958; I Consiglioeri, 1979; La città dei canti, 1984); Shefqet Musaraj (1914-1988), which deals with the partisan struggle and resistance to internal opponents; Dhimitër Shuteriqi (b. 1915), who composed The Liberators(1953) on the same themes; Petro Marko (1913-1991), who made a name for himself with Hasta la vista and La notte di Ustica (1989); Ali Abdihoxha (b. 1923), with Three colors of the time (1965-1972); Jacov Xoxa (b. 1923), with The Dead River(1965); Dritëro Agolli, with Commissioner Memo (1969) and The Man with the Cannon (1975); Ismail Kadaré, the most successful novelist in Albania and best known also in the West, who expertly tackles current issues (The great winter, 1977), linked to historical facts (The general of the dead army, 1982), to the resistance against the Turks (Il castello), re-using with delicate metaphorical discourse also themes belonging to the traditional rhapsodic heritage (Chi has reported Doruntina?, 1989). In his perhaps most important work (The stone city, 1991), defended human rights against those who, identifying with the system, dedicated their existence to the iron control of consciences. Various writers have also distinguished themselves in the story, with interesting contributions for a reading of the literary movement of recent decades (suffice it to mention Naum Prifti, Teodor Laço, Anastas Kondo and Dhimitër Shuteriqi).