The incessant events that followed one another and culminated in the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) soon had an echo also in Albania: hostile and refractory to the reformist wave that came from Eastern Europe, the leaders of Tirana had to face an opposition that in an increasingly decisive way raised its protest against the regime. A form of dissent was also expressed in the exodus of the Albanians, who fled en masse to Western countries trying to reach more dignified living conditions. In July 1990, the repression of protests against the regime that shocked the whole nation, however, was significantly followed by the granting of an expatriation permit, the promise of certain political innovations and the start of a re-establishment of diplomatic relations with the USSR. The way to multi-partyism was also opened at the end of the same year, President Alia announced free elections on March 31, 1991, surprisingly won by the Communists of the Labor Party (PdL), due to the inexperience of the opposition forces. However, the growing social tension subsequently induced the PDL, renamed the Socialist Party of Albania in June 1991, to form a government of national unity with the participation of the opposition forces. However, this choice proved to be ineffective in countering the impending political crisis, determined by the popular condemnation of the economic disaster for which the management group that had governed the country for so long had been responsible. The subsequent elections (March 1992) therefore recorded the clear victory of the Democratic Party of impending political crisis, determined by the popular condemnation of the economic disaster for which the leadership group that had governed the country for so long had been responsible. The subsequent elections (March 1992) therefore recorded the clear victory of the Democratic Party of impending political crisis, determined by the popular condemnation of the economic disaster for which the leadership group that had governed the country for so long had been responsible.
The subsequent elections (March 1992) therefore recorded the clear victory of the Democratic Party of Go up Berisha, who took over from Alia, who resigned, in the presidency of the Republic. Despite a strong commitment from the international community, the economic conditions in Albania, a country located in Europe according to thembaprograms.com, nevertheless remained uncertain. This favored the repetition of expatriations especially towards Italy, the destination of a mass clandestine emigration, which included many deaths due to the precariousness of the means adopted in an attempt to cross the Adriatic. Meanwhile, the new leadership group banned (July 1992) any form of political organization of totalitarian ideology, both from the right and from the left, while some of the most prominent figures of the old apparatus (Alia, Ahmeti, Nano) were arrested and sentenced for corruption. In the political elections of May-June 1996, the Democratic Party, in power, it strengthened its presence in Parliament, thanks to the lack of participation in the electoral consultation of the socialists and other opposition groups. These had deserted the polls, holding the government responsible for intimidation and fraud, accusations in some way also endorsed by observers of the OSCE, present in the country. After a few months, however, in the subsequent administrative elections, the Democratic Party repeated the success of the legislative elections, obtaining 62% of the votes, a consensus which, however, was soon countered by strong social unrest due to the fragility of the economic-financial system. The bankruptcy, in fact, of many companies that had raked in 90% of Albanian savings, starting from January 1997, caused real riots with assaults on banks and on the same men of the government, accused of having favored these companies in their speculation.. As a result, the country split in two: the South, in fact in the hands of rebel bands, became uncontrollable. The exodus of the Albanians to Italy resumed, to stop him, a new international aid mission was organized and the government was asked to hold new electoral consultations. Between the end of June and the beginning of July, legislative elections were held, combined with an institutional referendum (not without contestation) for the restoration of the monarchy. These ended, between accidents and accusations of fraud, with the clear victory of the Socialists, who obtained approx. two thirds of the seats in Parliament. The defeat of the Democrats therefore led to the resignation of Berisha from the post of president, who was succeeded by Rexhep Mejdani, secretary of the Socialist Party. Having resigned as head of the Bashkim Fino government, Mejdani appointed the socialist leader Fatos Nano who, however, in September 1998, accused of being the instigator of the murder of Azum Hajdari, right arm of former President Berisha, resigned. The reins of the Albanian government passed into the hands of the socialist Pandeli Majko. In October 1998 a new Constitution was approved, which replaced the one issued in 1991.