Brazil is a country of continental
dimensions. A nation with immense wealth and natural and cultural
diversity, integrated by the same language. The tourism options are
also immense, with 26 states and a Federal District, there are
charming towns, large metropolises and historic cities. Beautiful
beaches, resorts, fascinating rural landscapes and lots of
ecological tourism. When Columbus discovered America he was wrong.
The Indies, which he sought, were on the other side of the
world. In addition, he landed in Portuguese lands, according to the
Treaty of Alcáçovas. When Cabral discovered Brazil, for Europeans,
he was also unaware of the scale of the feat. It would be just an
island in East Asia, like others indicated on maps of the
time. However, strategies are not usually written and sometimes
remain secret forever. Determining historical facts is not simple,
we only know the versions that remain. The history of Brazil is
fascinating. Even before European rule, until the transformation
into a great nation, united by the same language. Brazil has 7,367
km of coastline. They are beautiful landscapes and beaches from the
north to the south of the country. The coast is one of the main
tourist destinations for those visiting Brazil and one of the most
sought after vacation options among Brazilians. The coast of Brazil
is divided by the temperature of the waters: warm in the Northeast,
cold in the Southeast and icy in the South. The reason is in the
currents. The Northeast is bathed by the great current that comes
from the Gulf of Guinea, in Africa. The South is bathed by the great
Falkland current, which comes from Antarctica. The two major
currents are found on the coast of Espírito Santo.
Bolivia is one of only two countries in South America without an
ocean coast. Much of its territory is in the heights of the Andes,
including the capital La Paz (3,660 m). There are about 11 million
residents (2016). In the first decades of the 16th century, it was
part of the Inca Empire, when these lands were conquered by the
Spanish. Independence came in 1825. In 1903, the lands of
Acre were bought by Brazil by a treaty in which Ruy Barbosa
was against, claiming that such lands would already be Brazilian.
Argentina is a large country with a great diversity of
landscapes. From ice fields, to dry areas, mountainous reliefs with
plateaus or plains, immense rivers and lakes. Steppe vegetation with
woods and jungles. It is a nation of immigrants. At the beginning of
the 20th century, Argentina received about 200 thousand immigrants a
year. Today, there are more than 43 million residents.
Before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, northern Chile
was ruled by the Incas, while the south was inhabited by Araucanian
Indians. Although Chile declared independence from Spain in 1810,
the decisive victory did not occur until 1818. In the War of the
Pacific (1879-84), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia, conquering the
present lands to the north. In 1973, Allende's communist government
was overthrown by a military coup led by Pinochet, who ruled Chile
until free elections installed a democratic regime in 1990. Since
1980, the country has had a consistent economic policy and high
The Republic of Colombia is a country in South America, bathed by
the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. There are 47 million
residents (2016). The capital is Bogotá. The current territory of
Colombia was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. In 1819,
with Independence, the former Republic of Colombia emerged, formed
by the current countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama.
In 1830, that Republic collapsed, giving rise to current countries.
The territory of present-day Ecuador was inhabited by populations
of different origins before the Spanish conquest in the early 16th
century. It remained a Spanish colony until 1822, when it gained its
independence. At that time, it was part of Great Colombia, but it
dismembered in 1830, to form the Republic of Ecuador. The capital is
Guyana (Co-operative Republic of Guyana) is a country in
South America, bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of its territory
is covered by tropical forests. It has borders with the states of
Roraima and Pará. There are 736 thousand residents (2016). The
capital is Georgetown. The coast of Guyana was explored by
Christopher Columbus in 1498. In the 17th century, the territory was
colonized by the Dutch. It became a British possession in 1815.
Independence from British Guyana was achieved in 1966.
French Guyana (Collectivité Territoriale de Guyane) is
an overseas department in France, in northern South America. Most of
the territory is covered by forest. There are 257 thousand residents
(2016). The capital is Cayenne (Cayenne). In the early 16th
century, the Spaniards explored the coastline of present-day French
Guyana and began to colonize it a few years later. Subsequently, the
Territory was also disputed by the French and the Dutch. These were
expelled in 1676, and the Territory came to be controlled by
France. In 1809, the Prince Regent of Portugal D. João, then in
Brazil, ordered the invasion of Cayenne, as a reprisal for the
invasion of Portugal by Napoleon's forces. The occupation lasted
until 1817 and gave rise to Guyana Portuguesa, registered on the
official map of Brazil and America Portuguesa, from 1821. Since
1968, the European Space Agency has used the Kourou Space Center,
off the coast of the Territory, for rocket launches.
The Republic of Paraguay is a country in South America. There are
6.9 million residents. The capital is Asunción (Asunción). In
the 16th century, the lands of present-day Paraguay were inhabited
by the Guarani when they were colonized by the Spanish. Independence
was achieved in 1811. In 1864, in search of a way out to sea,
Paraguay invaded Brazil, starting the Paraguay War.
Peru is a country in South America, bathed by the Pacific Ocean.
The capital is Quito. Ancient Peru was inhabited by the Incas,
conquered by the Spanish in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared
in 1821, with the last Spanish forces defeated in 1824. Peru's
economy reflects its geographic diversity. Abundant mineral
resources in mountainous areas and fishing in coastal waters.
However, the infrastructure is poor. The capital is Lima.
The Republic of Suriname is a country in South America, bathed by
the Atlantic Ocean. About 95% of its territory is covered by
tropical forests. There are 586 thousand residents. The capital is
Paramaribo. Ancient Dutch Guyana was explored by Spaniards in the
late 15th century. Its coastline is indicated in the Cantino,
from 1502, which seems to register the Suriname River as Rio Grande,
mistaken for the Amazon, by some authors, due to the great scale
error of that map. This territory was colonized by the Dutch in the
17th century. Independence was achieved in 1975.
For the Uruguay, Brazilian was in good part of
its history. Since the founding of Colonia del Sacramento
in 1680, it has become the scene of disputes between Spanish and
Portuguese. In 1821, it was annexed to Brazil as Cisplatina
Province, until its independence in 1828, under the name of
Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Uruguay is currently one of the most
liberal countries with the best working conditions in South America.
The capital is Montevideo. The Oriental Republic of
Uruguay has 3.4 million residents (2016). Montevideo
is the capital, main port and financial center. The country is
divided into 19 departments: Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo,
Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo,
Paysandú, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San José, Soriano,
Tacuarembó, Treinta y Tres. Uruguay has a total area of 176 km²,
with 660 km of coastline. The border with Brazil is 985 km long. The
highest point is Cerro Catedral, with 514 meters. The country's
economy is oriented towards the export of agricultural products. The
workforce has a high educational level. The official language is
In 1819, with the struggles for the independence of New Granada,
Spanish territory in America, the former Republic of Colombia
appeared, formed by the present countries of Colombia, Venezuela,
Ecuador and Panama, and chaired by Simón Bolívar. In 1830, that
Republic collapsed, giving rise to current countries. Today,
Venezuela's economy is based mainly on oil production. The country
has 31 million residents (2016) and the capital is Caracas.