Natural resources and energy
Somalia's mineral resources are not very well
explored, but it is known that there are at least
plaster and small amounts of gold, silver, tungsten,
manganese, limestone, iron, chromium, nickel, bauxite,
copper and uranium.
Oil and gas are believed to be both onshore and
offshore (especially in the northern part of the
country). However, several companies have started
searching for oil in Somaliland and Puntland. Some oil
and natural gas discoveries have been made, but no
recovery has been initiated.
Major exports by Somalia with a full list of the top products exported by the country. Includes trade value in U.S. dollars and the percentage for each product category.
Most of the electricity produced in Somalia comes
from privately owned diesel-powered generators. Instead,
most Somalis refer to firewood and charcoal for their
energy supply, which has led to problems with
deforestation. It is also exacerbated by the fact that
charcoal from acacia trees is exported to Kenya.
Overwork is also a problem.
Abbreviationfinder: A popular acronym site in the world covering abbreviation for each country. For example, SO stands for Somalia. Visit itypeusa for more information about Somalia.
FACTS - ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Carbon dioxide emissions in total
609,000 tonnes (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions per inhabitant
0.0 tonnes (2014)
The share of energy from renewable sources
94.3 percent (2015)
The United States kills "four terrorists" in aviation
US military claims to have killed "four terrorists" from al-Shabaab in three
targeted air strikes. The raids occur in response to the attack in Mogadishu the
At least 79 dead in Mogadishu attacks
At least 79 people are killed in a car bomb attack in the morning rush hour
in Mogadishu. At least 16 of the victims are university students, but 17 police
officers and two Turkish engineers are also killed. Furthermore, according to
unconfirmed reports, more than 100 people have been seriously injured. Turkey
later sends a plan to evacuate at least 15 seriously injured Somalis for care.
Turkey also sends 24 doctors and other healthcare professionals to help them on
site. No group has assumed responsibility for the act, but the suspicions are
directed at the militant Islamist group al-Shabaab.
Floods and grasshopper swarms hit Somalia
Somalia has suffered from an invasion of grasshoppers, which has hit hard on
crops and pastures. It has hit a country where there is already a food shortage,
and which earlier in the year has been hit hard by both drought and severe
rainfall, with subsequent floods that left around 180,000 people homeless.
According to the FAO, a grasshopper swarm, on average, destroys foods that could
be enough to feed 2,500 people over a full year.
Five dead in attack against military base
Four civilians and one soldier are killed when dozens of members of the
militant Islamist group al-Shabaab attack a military base, Hilweyne, just over
two miles from Mogadishu. For a period, the assailants take control of the base
before retreating. Among the victims are two women who usually sell food and
other supplies to the base.
Several dead in attacks on hotels in Mogadishu
At least three civilians and two soldiers are killed when the militant
Islamist group al-Shabaab attacks an hotel in Mogadishu, close to the
presidential palace. Two of the assailants are killed outside the hotel, while
another three get into it. 82 people were evacuated before Somali security
forces took full control of the hotel and all the assailants were killed.
Somalia and Kenya agree to normalize relations
Somalia and Kenya have agreed to normalize contacts after a lengthy dispute
over sea rights in an area believed to be rich in oil and gas. At the beginning
of the year, the conflict led Kenya to call its ambassador for consultations and
invited Somalia's embassy to leave Kenya (see February 2019).
After Ethiopian mediation, diplomatic relations were resumed in March, but only
now is it possible again to obtain a travel visa to the neighboring country
directly at the border. The country's presidents, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed and
Uhuru Kenyatta, promise at a meeting to try to find ways to strengthen
diplomatic and bilateral relations. The dispute over sea rights is already
handled by the International Court of Justice (ICJ)) in The Hague. In October,
following a request from Kenya, CJ agreed to postpone the process for one year.
At least ten dead in severe floods
At least ten people are killed in severe flooding in the city of Beledweyne
in the middle of Somalia. About 270,000 people have also been forced to leave
their homes to escape the masses of water. Concerns are high that continued
downpours with subsequent floods will lead to disease spreading and even more
people being forced to leave their homes.
Amnesty criticizes US drone attacks
Amnesty again criticizes US for killing civilians in US drone attacks (see
March 2019). This concerns a scare on March 18, 2019, in which
three peasants who lacked ties to al-Shabaab were killed. The United States then
claimed that three members of al-Shabaab were killed. In the spring of 2019, the
US military command Africom promised to investigate Amnesty's information, but
it has not. Nor have any attempts been made to contact the male relatives. From
2017, but especially this year, the number of drone attacks has increased
significantly. 2019 is also the year in which most people have been killed in
al-Shabaab terrorist attack, about 1 200. Read more about it here (article in
English from the BBC).
Islamists carry out attacks on US special forces
The militant Islamist group al-Shabaab targets a suicide attack on a base
where US special forces train Somali military. Outside the base located at
Baledogle Military Airport, in the Lower Shabelle region, about 10 miles west of
Mogadishu, two car bombs are detonated. This is followed by an attack in which
an unknown number of armed militiamen attack the base. According to al-Shabaab
faithful media, 121 American soldiers are killed, which is denied by the United
States, which in turn says that ten milers were killed and that one of
al-Shabaab's vehicles was destroyed by air raids. On the same day, another car
bomb attack is directed against a column of Italian advisers in Mogadishu.
However, nothing is damaged.
Ready for new anti-corruption commissions
President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed signs a new anti-corruption law. It
means, among other things, that independent anti-corruption commissions should
be formed at both national and regional levels. The measure is being taken to
improve the country's image. In 2018, Somalia was in last place in Transparency
International's index of perceived corruption in the countries of the world. But
it is also about persuading the IMF and the World Bank to try to write off
Amisom soldiers are killed in ambush
An unknown number of Amisom forces are killed in ambush against a military
column en route from Jowhar to Mogadishu. The death toll differs between
different sources, one source states that 12 Burundian soldiers have been
killed, while the militant group al-Shabaab, which has taken on the killing,
claims that 14 soldiers have been killed. Just hours before the attack, three
people had been killed in an attack on the same road.
Presidential elections in Jubaland block contradictions to Mogadishu
Ahmed Mohamed Madobe is re-elected as President of Jubaland (sometimes
spelled Jubbaland). Madobe, who belongs to the evil of the next largest clan in
the area, gets 56 of the 74 votes cast in the state parliament. Several
opposition candidates who have been barred from participating hold their own
vote, which is won by Abdirashid Mohamed Hidig, a member of the federal
parliament. The election has diluted the ongoing power struggle between the
government in Jubaland and the holders of Mogadishu who refuse to approve the
election. It has also led to tensions between Kenya, which supports Madobe and
Ethiopia, which have close ties to the Somali government.
New security managers are appointed
President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed re-furnishes within the security
apparatus and appoints new heads of the national intelligence service, the
police and the army. At the same time, Omar Mohamud Mohamed, who has lived in
the UK for many years, is appointed new mayor of Mogadishu. He replaces
Abdirahman Omar Osman who was killed in an attack in July.
Army reform is initiated
Steps are being taken to reform the Somali army. A first step, which was
taken in March, is for the authorities to start paying salaries directly to the
soldiers' salary account, in order to avoid money disappearing on the road. This
is done via a biometric system where, among other things, fingerprints are used
to identify the account holder. About 10,000 names of soldiers who do not exist
or those who have deserted have been deleted from payrolls. Not everyone
welcomed the action, in March a number of soldiers deserted in protest. They are
under pressure from aid donors who also want the Somali army to eventually take
over responsibility for security in the country from the Amisom peacekeeping
force. However, according to most analysts, it will take some time before they
have the capacity to do so.
At least 17 dead in bombing
At least 17 people were killed in a car bomb attack in Mogadishu, near the
international airport. Among the victims are the mayor of the capital,
Abdirahman Omar Osman. The militant Islamist group al-Shabaab takes on the deed.
At least 26 dead in Kismayo attacks
At least 26 people are killed in an attack on a hotel in the port city of
Kismayo, where elders and politicians from the region gathered to discuss the
upcoming state elections in Jubaland. The deed begins with a suicide attack
outside the hotel, which is then attacked by three armed men. One of the victims
is a candidate who would have stood in the regional presidential election. Among
the dead, there are also two journalists and an employee of the United Nations
Migration IOM. The militant Islamist group al-Shabaab takes on the deed.
Three al-Shabaab members are executed for bombing
Somalia executes three members of militant Islamist group al-Shabaab for
their involvement in a bomb attack against a hotel in Mogadishu 2017, in which
18 people were killed and 47 people injured.
Somalia breaks contacts with Guinea
Somalia breaks diplomatic relations with Guinea since a Somaliland delegation
visited the West African country under the leadership of President Muse Bihi
Abdi. Somaliland proclaimed itself an independent state in 1991 but has not been
recognized by any other country. When visiting Guinea, according to information
from the AFP news agency, the Somali delegation should have discussed plans to
establish diplomatic relations.
At least 16 dead in Islamist deeds
Somalia is shaken by several attacks. In Mogadishu, at least eight civilians
are killed and 16 injured when a car bomb explodes near Parliament. The security
service states that another car bomb attack was stopped in the Somali capital by
shooting the person driving the car. In southern Somalia, near the border with
Kenya, another act is targeted at a transport of eleven Kenyan police officers.
At least eight of them must have been killed when a road bomb exploded,
according to local sources. The Islamist group al-Shabaab has taken on all the
More than two million Somalis are threatened by starvation
The UN warns again of severe famine in Somalia after the worst drought in the
country in 35 years. The UN has promised disaster relief of $ 45 million for
water, food and other humanitarian aid to Somalia, but also other
drought-stricken areas in northern Kenya and parts of Ethiopia. Most of the
money will go to Somalia, where the UN estimates that over two million people
will be in acute famine in September, an increase of 40 percent since the
beginning of the year. An additional three million Somalis are expected to have
insufficient food. The rainfall that fell during the rainy season in April and
June has been insufficient. In addition, less rain than usual came in the fall
The UN reduces Amisom's troop strength
The UN Security Council has decided to reduce the regional peacekeeping force
Amisom by 1,000 men, despite an increase in the number of attacks in Mogadishu.
But an opening is left for the decision to be re-examined if the violence
increases further. In February 2019, when Amisom's mandate was extended for
another year, the force consisted of just over 19,000 men.
US ex-diplomat takes over as UN envoy
An American former diplomat, James Swan, takes over the post of UN Special
Envoy in Somalia. He replaces Nicholas Haysom who was forced to leave his post
in January after the Somali government accused him of interfering with the
country's internal affairs (see January 2019).
Drought causes famine in Somalia
Severe drought has resulted in almost two million Somalis in urgent need of
food assistance, according to the Norwegian Refugee Council. Hundreds of
thousands of children are already suffering from malnutrition and many people
have left their homes in the countryside to search for food. Similar figures
also come from the UN, which fears that the number of vulnerable people will
increase by half a million until July.
The United States admits that civilian Somalis have been killed in trachea
The United States is admitting for the first time that two civilian Somalis
have been killed in connection with US airstrikes. This applies to a scare in
the El Burr region in April 2018. Amnesty has claimed that the number of
civilian deaths is higher than that (see March 2019). Until
now, the US military has insisted that no civilian casualties have been required
At least 15 dead in terrorist attacks
The militant Islamist group al-Shabaab is launching an attack on a government
building in Mogadishu. At least 15 people are killed, including Deputy Labor
Minister Saqar Ibrahim Abdala and several policemen. Five of the assailants are
killed in connection with the attack.
Amnesty: US Air Force demands civilian sacrifices
In recent years, the United States has increased its air strikes against
militant Islamist groups in Somalia. According to Amnesty, over 100 raids have
been conducted since June 2017, which is significantly more than in Yemen and
Libya. It is about missiles that are fired from manned aircraft and with the
help of drones. According to the US military, 800 people have been killed in the
attacks, but all reports state that no civilian casualties have been claimed.
Amnesty disputes this and has concluded that 14 civilians were killed in five
attacks that were investigated in more detail, four of which were performed by
the United States. The report The Hidden US War in Somalia is based, among other
things, on interviews with 150 people, satellite images and photographs.
At least 20 dead in attacks in central Mogadishu
At least 20 people are killed and a hundred injured in an attack in central
Mogadishu. A member of al-Shabaab carries out a suicide attack outside a hotel,
after which the militant Islamist group occupies a nearby restaurant, which is
later surrounded by Somali government forces. During the day, gunfire is ongoing
in the area, before the siege is said to be over and four assailants must have
been killed. al-Shabaab is said to have used civilians as human shields.
According to media, the death toll is expected to rise. On the same day, the
United States launches yet another airstrike against al-Shabaab and claims to
have killed 26 Islamists in the Hiran area.
Border disputes create tension between Somalia and Kenya
A border dispute between Somalia and Kenya over a sea area equivalent to
100,000 square kilometers which is believed to be rich in oil and gas creates
tensions between the countries. This has happened since Kenya accused Somalia of
having auctioned oil and gas rights in the disputed area in early February. The
Somali government claims the allegations are wrong, but Kenya calls its
ambassador from Mogadishu for "consultations" and calls on Somalia's ambassador
to leave the country. In 2014, Somalia turned to the International Court of
Justice (ICJ)) in The Hague in the Netherlands to settle the matter, after talks
about the border collapsed. The dispute is causing a number of Khat traders in
Somalia to stop buying the drug from Kenya. According to the BBC, Somalia
imports around 50 tonnes of khat a day. After Ethiopian mediation, diplomatic
relations resume in March of the same year.
Ten people are killed in new assaults
Nine people are killed in a car bomb attack against Hamarweyne market in
Mogadishu. Earlier in the day, the Maltese head of the port of Bossasso was shot
dead. The militant militia al-Shabaab takes on both deaths.
Over 50 dead in American aviation
The United States claims to have killed 52 members of al-Shabaab in yet
another airstrike. According to the US military command Africom, this occurs in
connection with the Islamist group attacking a military base in Bulogagdud with
heavy weapons and explosives. According to sources in nearby villages,
al-Shabaab raids the facility and steals a military vehicle. Six soldiers are
said to have been killed during the attack, while two were killed in mine
explosions after the military recaptured the base.
Dozens are killed in American aviation
The United States has conducted several airstrikes in Somalia on January 6 to
8, killing 16 jihadists, according to the US military command Africom. Another
airplane, in which ten al-Shabaab members were killed, was to be carried out on
Said Abdullahi Deni new president of Puntland
Parliament in the Puntland region appoints businessman Said Abdullahi Deni as
new president for a five-year term. The election is held in three rounds and
Deni has 20 contenders from the beginning, including incumbent President
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gaas. All defeated candidates congratulate Deni for the
victory. The 66 members of Puntland's parliament, including a woman, are
appointed by clan elders.
The UN Security Council agrees to appoint a new envoy
The UN Security Council regrets the decision by the Somali government to
expel UN envoy Nicholas Haysom, but still agrees to appoint his replacement. At
the same time, the Security Council emphasizes that it expects cooperation
between the UN and Somalia to work. UN Secretary-General António Guterres has
called Somalia's president on two occasions to persuade him to let Haysom stay
UN envoy is ordered to leave Somalia
Somalia orders UN envoy Nicholas Haysom to leave the country and forbids him
to work in the country. The government accuses him of interfering with the
country's internal affairs. This happens after Haysom, in a letter to the
Minister of Security, asked questions about why UN-backed security forces
participated in the arrest of the defeated Islamist leader Mukthar Robow (also
called Abu Mansur) ahead of the elections in the south-west state in December
(see December 2018). The arrest led to clashes between
Somali forces and Robow's supporters. Ethiopian forces, which formally belong to
Amisom, were also involved. According to the government, Robow was intervened
because of suspicions that he had brought in weapons and militia in Baidoa. At
least 15 civilians were killed in connection with protests against his arrest
and 300 people, many of them children, were taken into custody. In his letter,
Haysom wonders if the authorities have taken any action to investigate what has
happened to them. A cover letter also states that the EU, Germany and the United
Kingdom are suspending their support to the police forces in the southwestern
state because of how they acted in the election. A few days later, Somalia's UN
ambassador urges the UN Security Council not to intervene in the country's