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New York is a state in the United States, often called The Empire State because
of the state's prominent position in the Union.
New York is located on the east coast and borders the north to the Canadian
provinces of Ontario and Quebec, to the east to the New England states
of Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, to the south to New
Jersey and Pennsylvania, and to the west to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The
state has a total area of approximately 141,300 square kilometers and has
19,849,399 residents (US Census, 2017).
New York was listed as the 11th state in the United States on July 26, 1788.
The state capital is Albany. New York sends 2 senators and 27 representatives
New York encompasses a variety of natural geographic regions. The area west
of the Hudson River and south of the Mohawk River belongs to
the Appalachians. This area, which makes up half of the state's area, includes
the Catskill Mountains up to 1,281 feet high and the beautiful Finger Lakes Lake
District. At Lake Erie there is a narrow, at Lake Ontario a wider coastal plain.
Between the St. Lawrence Valley to the west and Lake Champlain to the east
lies the Adirondack Mountains, separated from the Catskill Mountains to the
south of the Mohawk Valley. The mountains are structurally different from the
Appalachians, reaching 1629 meters above Mount Marcy, which is the highest point
in the state. Mohawk has an outlet in the Hudson River, which comes from Lake
Champlain and flows into the Atlantic Ocean at New York City. Below the
confluence of the Mohawk, Hudson forms a wide valley, separating the Catskill
and Adirondack mountains from the Taconic Mountains to the east.
The state has numerous lakes, especially in the Adirondack Mountains and in
the west (Finger Lakes), testifying to the ice age's landscaping. Long
Island and Staten Island belong to the Atlantic coastal plain.
The climate is humid continental. About 45 per cent of the area is wooded
(mostly deciduous forest). New York has a large number of state parks and two
large forest reserves.
Before European colonization began in the 17th century, the area was
populated by various indigenous communities, including Iraqis. Ever since the
colonial period, most of the population growth has been due
to immigration; before the 1890s, substantially from northern and western
Europe, later from southern and eastern Europe. After World War II, many blacks
from southern states, Puerto Ricans, and other West Indians immigrated to New
In 1970, New York was bypassed by California as the United States' most
populous state; in the 1990s also by Texas. Between 1970 and 1980, the
population fell by 3.8 percent (population across the country increased by an
average of 11.4 percent), mainly due to the large decline in New York
City's population, while the state experienced a slow growth in the 1990- 2000
55.3 percent of the population is considered white and 17.7 percent black
(African American), while Hispanic (Hispanic / Latino) constitutes 19.2 percent
and Asians 9.1 percent (US Census, 2017). However, the Blacks and Puerto Ricans
are highly concentrated in New York City. The Jewish population is also numerous
In 2010, about 88 per cent of the population lived in cities and towns. The
largest are New York City, the largest city in the United States and one of the
largest in the world with 8,622,698 residents, Buffalo with 258,612
residents, Rochester with 208,046 residents, Yonkers with 202,019
residents, Syracuse with 143,396 residents and the capital Albany with 98,251
residents (US Census, 2017).
The largest metropolitan areas are New York-Newark-Jersey City, or New
York metropolitan area - the world's largest metropolitan region with
20,320,876 residents (US Census, 2017) - and Buffalo-Niagara Falls with
The economy is heavily dominated by business in New York City, which has
two-thirds of the industry and is one of the world's foremost financial centers
and headquarters for the UN. The city's industry is versatile with an emphasis
on printing and publishing, the media, clothing, machinery and pharmaceutical
industries and wholesale trade. New York City is one of the world's largest
tourist cities, and the inland mountain and sea area is a favorite vacation and
Buffalo is an important center for the heavy industry (iron and
steel), Rochester is the main seat of Eastman Kodak (film and photo equipment)
and Schenectady (suburb of Albany) has a refrigerator and other electrical
products (General Electric Company). Also Syracuse, Utica, Troy and Binghampton
(IBM) has substantial industry.
Agriculture produces dairy products, vegetables and fruits for the
metropolitan market. Fruit cultivation takes place especially at the seas
(Finger Lakes) and in the Hudson Valley. Some salt (farthest
southwest), plaster, talc, crude oil, gravel and sand are extracted.
There are a number of universities and other higher education institutions,
including the State University of New York, which is part of the University of
the State of New York, City University of New York (founded 1847), Columbia
University (1754) and New York University (1831) in New York City, Cornell
University (1865) in Ithaca, Syracuse University (1870), Union University (1795)
in Albany and Schenectady, and State University (SUNY, founded 1948) with
branches in Albany, Binghampton, Buffalo and Stony Brook. In Troy lies the
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1824) and in Poughkeepsie Vassar College
Hudson is navigable for seagoing ships from New York City, as one of the
world's largest port cities, to Albany and supplemented by the New York State
Canal System (1918). The John F. Kennedy International, La Guardia and Newark
(New Jersey) airports serve Greater New York, and are all among the busiest in
The area that now constitutes the state of New York was in practice divided
between the Iroquois people and tribes of the Algonquin group when Europeans
arrived. The divide was largely along the present Hudson River (the Iroquois
west of the river). Although Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazano may have
sailed into the area of present-day New York City in 1524, Frenchman Samuel de
Champlain was the first European to prove the area when he in 1609 embarked on
an expedition south from the St. Lawrence district. The same year Henry
Hudson traveled up the Hudson River to present-day Albany on behalf
of Dutch interests.
In 1623, the Dutch established New Netherlands, which in 1664 was
forced by the English to become a British colony under the name New York after
the Duke of Albany and York, later King James II. New York continued as a
British colony until the Revolution of 1776 (with the exception of a Dutch
interlude in the years 1673–1674).
The interaction between the Iroquois and the British had been an important
factor in the colony's success in keeping French interests at a distance. As the
Iroquois maintained the alliance with Britain during the Revolutionary War, this
had unfortunate consequences for many indigenous communities. The British were
decisively defeated in the Battle of Saratoga in 1777.
New York was one of the original 13 states in the United States. The state
capital was New York City until 1797, then Albany.