Natural resources and energy
Mozambique has good assets on a variety of
metals and minerals, including oil, natural gas and
coal. The country also has plenty of hydropower.
High hopes are linked to gas deposits in the Rovuma
basin on and off the coast of Cabo Delgado Province in
the north. Gas reserves are estimated to be so large
that Mozambique could become Africa's third largest gas
producer after Nigeria and Algeria. In the fall of 2019,
the foundation stone for a liquefied natural gas (LNG)
plant in Cabo Delgado was laid. The plant will be
operated by the American energy giant Anadarko.
Production of LNG is expected to commence in 2024.
Major exports by Mozambique with a full list of the top products exported by the country. Includes trade value in U.S. dollars and the percentage for each product category.
Some natural gas is already being produced in the
country through, among other things, investments from
the South African state-owned company Sasol. Exploration
for offshore oil is also ongoing.
The development of the mining sector was hampered by
the civil war that lasted until 1992, but the industry
has been strengthened by foreign investment after the
peace settlement. The extraction of titanium in the Moma
mine in the Northeast is important. The hard metal
tantalum as well as bauxite, marble, gold, rubies and a
variety of other deposits are also mined.
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Coal production has increased substantially during
the 2010s. There are large reserves of coal in the Tete
province in the northwest with mines in Moatize and
Benga, but production is hampered by bottlenecks in the
Mozambique's many rivers provide an abundance of
hydroelectric power, but much is still untapped and just
over one-sixth of Mozambique's have access to
electricity. The most important energy source is still
wood and also biomass. The forest area decreases for
each year despite replanting. A report from the
Environmental Investigation Agency in 2014 estimated
that 80 percent of all logging has been illegal since
There used to be a well-developed electricity grid,
which was destroyed during the civil war. However, the
Cabora Bassa hydroelectric plant in the Zambezi River
did relatively well. It was the Portuguese who built the
huge plant, which is said to be able to produce enough
electricity to light up a third of Africa. Far from all
that capacity is utilized. Due to a 1980 contract,
Mozambique had to sell most of the electricity cheaply
to South Africa. China has provided loans for a new
power plant in the Zambezi River, and several major
power plant projects are planned with the goal of making
Mozambique a major electricity exporter.
FACTS - ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy use per person
428 kilos of oil equivalent (2014)
Electricity consumption per person
463 kWh, kWh (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions in total
8 427 thousand tonnes (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions per inhabitant
0.3 ton (2014)
The share of energy from renewable sources
86.4 percent (2015)
Mosques are closed after attacks
The government orders three mosques in the city of Pemba in the northern
province of Cabo Delgado to be closed. The reason is that the mosques are
believed to have been in contact with the people who attacked police stations in
the city of Mocimboa da Praia in October.
Attack on police stations
Several police stations in the town of Mocimboa da Praia in the province of
Cabo Delgado in northern Mozambique are being attacked in what appears to be
coordinated raids. It is unclear who the attackers are, but the suspicions are
directed at Islamic extremists. Two policemen are killed and, according to the
police, 14 attackers are shot dead. The following days, more than 50 people are
arrested for the attacks. Eighty percent of the 2.3 million inhabitants of Cabo
Delgado are Muslims with strong ties to neighboring Tanzania. Nationally,
Muslims are a minority and in Cabo Delgado there is dissatisfaction with the
central government dominated by people from the southern part of the country.
The government is accused of neglecting the needs of the Muslims.
New albino murder
A 17-year-old boy suffering from albinism (lack of pigment) is kidnapped and
killed in Tete province in the northwest. The body is found severely mutilated.
According to the UN, there have been more than 100 attacks on albinos in
Mozambique since 2014. Body parts from albinos are used in ceremonies by
superstitious people who believe that they bring prosperity and happiness.
High-level peace meeting
President Filipe Nyusi and Renamol leader Afonso Dhlakama meet for the first
time in two years. According to a statement from the president's office after
the meeting, the two leaders had talked about the next step in the peace process
"which they hope to be in port before the end of the year".
The government is held accountable for lost millions
Prosecutors are beginning to investigate how the government handled half a
billion US dollars spent on these billion-dollar loans taken secretly in 2013
and 2014 by three government-backed companies with government guarantees (see
April 19, 2016). The government has claimed that the money was used to procure
equipment to protect the country's marine areas from piracy and illegal
exploitation, but the US accountant Kroll, who has reviewed the management of
the loans, says the figures are not correct. When the company compares the
government's accounting for its costs with what independent experts said was
worth the equipment, half a billion dollars is lost.
Renamol leader Afonso Dhlakama says that the movement's unilateral ceasefire
is extended indefinitely. He announced the ceasefire in January and extended it
by two months in early March. Now he says the ceasefire is "the beginning to the
end" of the war-like state that has prevailed since October 2013, when Renamo
terminated the 1992 peace agreement.
Mozambique is unable to pay interest
The Ministry of Finance says it cannot pay the monthly interest rate of USD
60 million for a bond loan taken in April 2016.
Renamo announces ceasefire
Renamo announces a two-month ceasefire to promote the possibility of
continued peace talks with the government. The message is preceded by a week's
truce which, according to Renamol leader Afonso Dhlakama, passed without more
serious incidents. The decision is made since Dhlakama and President Nyusi spoke
to each other on the phone several times.