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Massachusetts is a state of the United States of New England. It is located
on the Atlantic coast and borders north to Vermont and New Hampshire, west
to New York and south to Connecticut and Rhode Island. Massachusetts has a land
area of 27,337 km2 and has 6,859,819 residents (US Census,
2017). The capital and largest city is Boston.
The state is abbreviated MA and Mass. And is often called The Bay State after
the first two colonies The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630) and The
Plymouth Colony (1620). The name comes from Native American 'high hills',
when the natives called themselves 'the people from the high hills'.
Massachusetts can be geographically divided into two main regions. The
eastern part of the state consists largely of lowlands and belongs to the
Atlantic coastal plain. The area includes Cape Cod Peninsula and Martha's
Vineyard and Nantucket Islands, all moraine formation. The more hilly western
Massachusetts is split into two of the Connecticut River, and includes several
parallel mountain ranges that all belong to the Appalachians, including the
Berkshire Hills and the Green Mountains. The highest point is Mount Greylock
(1064 meters) in the Taconic Range to the northwest.
The climate is temperate, but somewhat cooler and drier in the west than in
the east. Boston has an average temperature of -3 °C for January and 24 °C for
July and approx. About 1085 mm of precipitation. The rainfall is evenly
distributed over the year; snow occurs in the period November – April. About 60
percent of the area is wooded (birch, beech, ash, oak, spruce).
Massachusetts was one of the first states to be colonized, and by 1850 the
population had passed one million. After World War II, population growth has
been moderate. In the period from 2000 to 2010, the total population increased
by 3.1 per cent (against 9.7 per cent for the country as a whole). Many
residents here are of English, Irish and Italian descent. Massachusetts is
highly urbanized, and over 92 percent of the population lived in cities or urban
areas in 2010. The capital of Boston is the largest city with 685,094
residents, and is the centerpiece of the larger
Boston-Worcester-Providence metropolitan area with 8,233,270 residents., 2017).
Massachusetts is one of the Democrats' strongest areas in the United States,
including the home state of the Kennedy family. Massachusetts sends
two senators and nine representatives to Congress.
Industry and service industries dominate the business world. It produces,
among other things, electrical and electronic articles, machines, precision
instruments, metal products, books and paper. The modern electronics companies
are concentrated along the Route 128 ring road. Massachusetts
' industrialization dates back to the 1640s, and the state was formerly the
United States' largest manufacturer of textile and leather goods. Agriculture
has traditionally had a secondary economic significance. The most important
agricultural products are milk, cheese, vegetables, poultry, tobacco
and cranberries (Cape Cod). Gloucester and New Bedford are among the more
significant fishing ports in the United States. Here was earlier whalinga very
important trade route. Boston is one of the leading port cities and wholesale
The state has a number of reputable institutions of higher education:
in Cambridge at Boston are Harvard University (founded 1636) and Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (1861), in Boston itself are Northeastern University
(1898) and Boston University (1869), and Amherst University of Massachusetts
In May 1620, the pilgrim fathers of the Mayflower ship founded Plymouth as
the first permanent white settlement in New England. The Massachusetts Company,
founded in 1629, gained new immigrants. Among other things, many Puritans had
tried in vain to reform the English Church in a stricter direction, and in 1643
the state was instrumental in forming the New England Federation.
The Puritans were zealous traders, but their economic progress was marred by
their intolerance and persecution of people with differing opinions. In 1691,
Massachusetts merged with Plymouth and Maine into one crown colony. The English
restrictions and fees were badly taken up by Massachusetts with its lively trade
The North American freedom struggle began with the clashes at Lexington in
1775 and in Concord. Massachusetts became a separate state in 1780 (one of the
original 13) and ratified the constitution in 1788. Maine was excreted as its
own state in 1820. In the 1800s, among other things, a significant textile
industry grew, which led to great immigration especially by Irish and
Italians. Boston became the new cultural center of the state and was a center of
gravity in the fight against slavery.