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Connecticut, abbreviated CT and Conn., is a state of New England in
the United States, bordering New York in the west, Massachusetts in the
north, Rhode Island in the east and Long Island Sound in the south.
Connecticut has a total area of approximately 14,350 km2 (the
third smallest state by area), and has 3,588,184 residents (US Census,
2017). Connecticut became the fifth state in the United States on January 9,
1788. The capital is Hartford, and the largest city is Bridgeport. The state's
highest point is on the south side of Mount Frissell toward the Massachusetts
border (725 ft.) And its average height is 150 ft.
The name Connecticut is of Algonquian Quinnehtukqut, 'by the long
tidal river'. The state is also referred to as Constitution State or Nutmeg
Connecticut covers the southern highlands of New England. The western and
eastern part consist of altitude ridges, which reach the altitude of 700 m as
far as the northwest. (Berkshire Hills). The middle part is dominated by
the Connecticut River, which forms a wide, low-lying and fertile valley.
Population growth was 2.5 per cent between 1970 and 1980, which was
significantly lower than the national average. In the decade 1980-90 it
increased to 5.8 per cent, in 1990-2000 3.3 per cent, and in 2000-2010 growth
was 4.9 per cent. 67 percent of residents are considered white - many of whom
are descendants of British, Italian, German and Polish immigrants - 11.9 percent
black and 16.1 percent Hispanic (US Census, 2017).
The state is among the most densely populated in the United States. Most live
on the coast and along the Connecticut River. About 90 percent live in
cities. The largest cities are Bridgeport with 146 579 residents, New
Haven with 131 014 residents, Stamford with 130 824 residents and the
capital Hartford with 123 400 residents (US Census, 2017). All of the
southwest part of the state (Fairfield County), including the cities
of Bridgeport, Stamford, Norwalk and Greenwich, is strongly oriented toward New
York City and forms a contiguous suburban area.
Connecticut sends two senators and five representatives to
the Washington Congress in Washington DC.
Agriculture plays a small role in the economy, and the number of farms has
declined sharply. Dairy products are still of great importance, otherwise
vegetables are grown for local consumption. Along the Connecticut River, some
tobacco is also grown.
The industry employs approximately 1 / 4 of the working
population. Important products are jet engines, sewing machines, watches, ball
bearings, metal products and electrical equipment. The state is otherwise well
known for its weapons industry, with the production of submarines, helicopters
and rifles. Many major US insurance companies are headquartered in the state,
and Hartford is often called "The Insurance City."
Higher education institutions include Yale University in New Haven, founded
in 1701, the State University of Storrs, founded in 1881, Wesleyan University,
Middletown, founded in 1831, and the US Coast Guard Academy in New London,
founded in 1876.
The coast was explored and the Connecticut River discovered by Dutchman
Adriaen Block in 1614. The first permanent settlement of colonists came
from Massachusetts Bay in 1635-1636. The first US Constitution (Fundamental
Orders) was adopted here in 1639.
Connecticut ratified the United States Constitution in 1788 as the 5th of the
original 13 states. During the War of Great Britain in 1814, Connecticut was the
scene of separatist expulsions from the New England States (Hartford