Natural resources, energy and environment
Chad has rich mineral resources. In addition
to oil, the country has gold, diamonds, bauxite,
uranium, soda and salt.
At the beginning of the 21st century, exploitation of
large oil deposits in the Doba region in the south
began. Production reached a peak in 2004. Since then,
the quotas have been reduced to about half the level as
some sources have begun to grow and the pumping
equipment has aged. In 2013, oil accounted for 60
percent of export earnings. Since then, the
international fall in oil prices has reduced the oil's
share of exports. The discovery of new oil sources has
raised hopes of a future increase in production.
Major exports by Chad with a full list of the top products exported by the country. Includes trade value in U.S. dollars and the percentage for each product category.
The US oil companies Chevron and Exxonmobil as well
as Malaysian Petronas are responsible for the oil
exploration. Several other companies, including Chinese,
are looking for oil in other parts of the country. A
Chinese company has built a refinery with associated
power plants north of N'Djamena (see also Foreign Policy
and Defense). The export of oil for export is via a
pipeline from Chad to the Cameroonian port city of Kribi.
There is a gold mine in the south run by a South
Korean company. Some gold is extracted by private
individuals who wash gold in watercourses and sell what
they find to support themselves.
Soda is extracted for use in soap making and tanning.
Electricity shortages are a major obstacle to economic
growth. Only a few percent of households have access to
electricity, which is mainly extracted from oil-fired
power plants. Electricity prices are among the highest
in the world. Firewood is the most important source of
energy at the local level, which contributes to reducing
the country's tree population.
Abbreviationfinder: A popular acronym site in the world covering abbreviation for each country. For example, CD stands for Chad.
Declining rainfall, climate change and irrigation in
agriculture have caused Lake Chad to lose 90 percent of
its area since the early 1960s. Together with the
destruction of the land (see Agriculture and Fisheries),
this is a serious environmental threat to the region.
The lake supplies 68 million people in the surrounding
countries with water. There are plans to divert water
from the basin of the Congo River to make the lake
bigger again. Oil extraction also causes environmental
problems in the south where oil spills destroy
agricultural land. The extraction of gold and uranium
also poses a threat as there is a risk that mining will
cause toxic leakage in nature.
FACTS - ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Carbon dioxide emissions in total
730,000 tonnes (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions per inhabitant
0.1 ton (2014)
The share of energy from renewable sources
89.4 percent (2015)
The Prime Minister resigns
After only ten months, Prime Minister Dadnadji resigned after 74 members of
his own party demanded a vote of no confidence against him in Parliament. They
accuse him of incompetence and of ordering "arbitrary arrests" by
parliamentarians. The criticism is based on the arrests made after an alleged
coup attempt (see May 2013). Economist Kalzeubet Pahimi Deubet,
who was most recently the head of the semi-state cotton company, is named new
Chad into the UN Security Council
Chad is for the first time elected to the UN Security Council at one of
Africa's two locations. Chad has been criticized for using child soldiers, but
the country's active participation in UN peacekeeping efforts has been
highlighted as a strong argument before the vote.
Habré is charged with genocide
Chad's President Habré is arrested in Senegal and charged there with war
crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and genocide in a specially established
Four Habré employees are being prosecuted
The government is prosecuting four fugitive employees of former President
Hissène Habré and issuing international arrest warrants against them. They are
accused of various abuses during Habré's regime. Habré himself is due to appear
before a special court in Senegal, where he lives on the run. Of the four now
charged, two live in France, one in Canada and one in Cameroon.
"Coup attempt has been averted"
The authorities announce that a coup attempt has been rejected. Two generals
and two MPs, including a representative of the government coalition, have been
arrested. Some people must also have been killed in a fire in the outskirts of
the capital N'Djamena.
Soldiers are taken home from Mali
President Déby announces that the approximately 2,000 Chadian soldiers who
have been participating in an international campaign against an Islamist
insurgency in Mali since the beginning of the year will gradually be taken home.
Chad has lost about 30 people in the fighting in Mali, which is more than any
other country in the French-led alliance.
UFR threatens to take up arms again
The UFR rebel movement threatens to take up arms again against the
government, which the rebels accuse of not having fulfilled a 2010 promise to
start peace talks. UFR dropped weapons in 2010 following a peace deal between
Chad and Sudan.
The Prime Minister resigns
Emmanuel Nadingar resigns as Prime Minister and is replaced by Djimrangar
Dadnadji. He has held several ministerial posts in the past and has most
recently served as head of the presidential staff. The change is seen as
completely undramatic and follows a pattern that the prime minister has never
sat for more than two three years.
Chad sends soldiers to Mali
Chad decides to send 2,000 troops to Mali to support French troops trying to
fight back an Islamist insurgency.