Natural resources and energy
Bosnia is quite rich in minerals. In the area
around Tuzla in the east as well as around Sarajevo and
Zenica in the central part of the country there are
large deposits of lignite. Bauxite is found in the north
and around Mostar in the south. The energy potential is
good, but the sector is poorly developed.
The extraction of iron ore and salt is great, and
there are also good assets on copper, lead, zinc, gold
and manganese. Timber and hydropower can also be counted
as natural resources.
Major exports by Bosnia and Herzegovina with a full list of the top products exported by the country. Includes trade value in U.S. dollars and the percentage for each product category.
Bosnia has good capacity to generate electricity and
is a net exporter of electricity. Coal burning accounts
for two-thirds of the electricity produced and water for
the rest. Hydropower is so far only used to a limited
In addition, Bosnia is dependent on imports for its
energy supply, in particular oil and natural gas. The
gas used mainly in the cities comes from Russia. Bosnia
has suffered supply disruptions due to Russian conflicts
with countries undergoing gas pipelines.
Abbreviationfinder: A popular acronym site in the world covering abbreviation for each country. For example, BA stands for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- SONGAAH: Find
lyrics of national anthem and all songs related to the country of Bosnia.
Bosnia was one of the most polluted areas in Europe
before the war, largely because of the metal industry.
As the industry was extinct to such an extent, the
pollution has decreased compared to the time before the
war. At the same time, the fighting led to the
destruction of many wastewater treatment plants and
waste facilities, which means that the water is poor in
many densely populated areas. The war also led to
extensive land destruction.
FACTS - ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy use per person
2,049 kilos of oil equivalent (2014)
Electricity consumption per person
3144 kilowatt hours, kWh (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions in total
22 233 thousand tonnes (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions per inhabitant
6.2 tons (2014)
The share of energy from renewable sources
40.8 percent (2015)
Government formation completed in Republika Srpska
In the Republic of Srpska, the Independent Social Democrats Alliance (SNSD),
the People's Democratic Alliance (DNS), the Socialist Party (SP) and the
Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) agree to form a new government. Thus, one can
also adopt a budget for 2015. On the other hand, government formation in the
Federation is delayed and there you can adopt a temporary finance law for the
first three months of the year, for the state's institutions to function.
Elections in the nation, entities and cantons
In the election to the presidency, Bakir Izetbegović is re-elected as Bosnian
representative while Dragan Čović wins the Croatian seat and Mladen Ivanić
Serbs. In Republic Srpska, Milorad Dodik is re-elected president and his party
SNSD remains the largest in the National Assembly. In the national parliament,
the SDA is the largest with 9 seats, followed by the SNSD (6), the Democratic
Front (5), SDS (5), SBB (4), HDZ BiH (4), SDP (3) and others (6). The turnout is
just over 54 percent.
The massacre's relatives are awarded damages
A verdict in a court in The Hague holds the Netherlands responsible for the
murder of about 300 Bosniaks in Srebrenica in July 1995. The case concerns
people who sought protection from the Bosnian Serb army of the UN force, but who
were handed over to the Serbs where the UN force believed they were secure.
Their survivors are now expected to be compensated by the Netherlands.
The European Court of Justice again states that Bosnia discriminates
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) gives Azra Zornić justice in a case
similar to the Sejdić-Finci case in December 2009. Zornić has declared
discrimination as she cannot stand as a candidate for the Presidential Council
or the People's House, Parliament's House of Commons, as she identifies only as
a Bosnian citizen (and not as a Bosniak, Croat or Serbian).
Political divide around the centenary
The centenary of the "Scots in Sarajevo", which is believed to have triggered
the First World War, is celebrated in the capital where the Vienna Philharmonic,
among others, gives a concert. Bosnian Serb and Serbian politicians choose
instead to participate in various events that pay tribute to the shooter,
Bosnian leg Gavrilo Principle. In Eastern Sarajevo, a statue of Princip is
inaugurated. The history books in the different parts of former Yugoslavia give
completely different images of Principle: while many Serbs see him as a hero of
freedom, he is seen by others as a terrorist.
After several months of rain in only a few days, the water rises over all the
banks of Sava and other rivers. Bosnia, together with Serbia, is hit by the most
difficult floods in a century. Tens of thousands of people are evacuated and
around 25 people are killed in Bosnia. The situation is made more difficult by
the fact that the water masses lead to landslides and a particular threat is
that land mines from the wars of the 1990s come into operation.
The Minister of Security is dismissed
On the initiative of the Bosnian-nationalist party SDA, Fahrudin Radončić is
dismissed as Minister of Security, because he failed to stop the riots in
February. Radončić, who is a party leader for the reform-friendly SBB, explains
that he did not want to police against justified protests against corruption in
the country, protests that some politicians called terrorism.
Unrest in several parts of the country
The protests that started in Tuzla are spreading, mainly to other parts of
the Federation, and are the worst since the war in 1992-95. In Sarajevo,
protesters light both the cantonal government building and the federal
presidential building. The heads of government in several of the Federation's
ten cantons resign. In several cities such as Sarajevo, Tuzla, Mostar and
Zenica, the inhabitants form so-called citizen plenums, where anyone who wants
to participate can discuss and propose changes and improvements and on how to
put pressure on politicians to take such.
Protests against financial difficulties
A demonstration in Tuzla becomes violent when protesters throw stones into
the government building and set fire to it. A large number of protesters and
police officers are injured. The protest started the day before thousands of
angry workers gathered outside the cantonal (regional) government building. They
object to wages and pensions, but also to the inability of politicians to do
something about the generally poor economic situation and high unemployment,
while at the same time living well with high wages and various benefits.
Students and political activists join the protests.