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New Jersey, abbreviated NJ or NJ, is a state in the US located at the
Atlantic coast, between the Delaware Bay and Delaware River in the west and the
Atlantic Ocean and Hudson River to the east and is bordered to the north towards
the state of New York. New Jersey has a total area of 22,590 km2 and
has 9,005,644 inhabitants (US Census, 2017). The capital is Trenton.
The state is also called The Garden State, the ' Garden
State ', which aims at the large production of vegetables. The name is
after the Channel Island of Jersey.
Nature and climate
Most of New Jersey belongs to the Atlantic Coastal Plain, which extends along
the United States east coast from Cape Cod in Massachusetts to
the Gulf of Mexico. The soil here consists of sand and clay, with large swamps
near the coast. The coast itself forms a lagoon coast, closed by sandbanks.
The northwest part belongs to the Appalachians and is intersected by narrow,
parallel slopes with a northeast – southwest direction; highest is the
Kittatinny Mountains which in the High Point reaches 550 meters above sea
level. The Delaware River, which forms the western boundary of
neighboring Pennsylvania, breaks through the mountains in a narrow gorge
(Delaware Water Gap) before it flows onto the coastal plain.
The climate is maritime temperate. About 40 per cent of the area is wooded,
essentially deciduous, on sandy soil also pine (Pine Barrens).
New Jersey was originally populated by the indigenous people
of Delaware. European colonization began in the 1620s, reaching a peak between
1850 and 1930 with large groups of Italian, Russian and German
immigrants. After World War II, many blacks moved from the southern states to
Since the late 1960s, population growth has been low. The population
increased in the period 1990–2000 by 8.9 per cent (against the national average
of 13.2 per cent), in the period 2000–2010 by 4.5 per cent (USA: 9.7 per
cent). Of the population, 55.1 percent are considered white, 15 percent black,
10.1 percent Asian, and 20.4 percent Hispanic (US Census, 2017).
New Jersey is the most densely populated state in the United States and,
along with California, the most urbanized, with 94.4 percent of the population
living in cities. The settlement is, however, very unevenly distributed
geographically, with 3 / 4 of the population live in the
Northeast and belongs to the Greater New York. Here are the cities
of Newark, Jersey City, Paterson and Elizabeth. Another agglomeration which
involves almost 1 / 5 of the population, extending along
Delaware River from capital Trenton to Camden and belong Philadelphia region.
New Jersey sends two senators and 12 representatives to Congress.
New Jersey is one of America's most important industrial states. Thomas
Edison established his inventor's laboratory in Menlo Park in 1876. The industry
includes large chemical factories, oil refineries, automotive, aerospace, food,
textile and machine factories, manufacturing of electronics, machine tools,
confectionery, rubber and leather goods. Most of the industry is located in the
northeast and is linked to New York City. The other major industrial
concentration is along the Delaware River, between Trenton to Camden, and is
integrated into the Philadelphia region.
Agriculture is characterized by proximity to the major markets in the
cities. In the south, vegetables, potatoes, fruits, raspberries and flowers are
grown, in the north more milk, egg and cereal production is run.
Newark and Elizabeth are important port cities; the port facilities are
managed as part of the Port of New York. Similarly, Camden's port facilities are
integrated into Philadelphia's port.
Atlantic City is one of America's leading bathing and congressional cities,
and (from 1978) has the only legal gaming casinos on the US East Coast.
There are a number of institutions of higher education and research,
including the State University (Rutgers University) with branches in New
Brunswick (founded in 1766), Camden and Newark, and Princeton
University (founded in 1746).
The first European settlement in New Jersey took place in 1623, when the
Dutch settled on the Hudson River. Swedish (and Finnish) immigrants established
a trading station at Delaware (New Sweden) in 1638. The Dutch took the Swedish
colony in 1655, but lost everything to the English in 1664. The area was divided
into the two colonies of Eastern and Western New Jersey in 1676., owned
respectively by British nobleman Sir George Carteret and a group of breeders.
The division lasted until 1702, when New Jersey was merged into one colony
under New York's jurisdiction. In 1738 the area became a separate colony, and in
1787 became a separate state in the union. New Jersey was the third state
to ratify the United States Constitution.