Natural resources, energy and environment
Nepal's mineral resources are poorly explored.
The only thing that has been found of some major
deposits is mica, which is broken east of the capital
Kathmandu. Nepal has the world's largest hydropower
capacity per capita, but only a fraction has been
There are assets of copper, zinc, iron and cobalt,
among others. Some extraction takes place, but most of
the known reserves are not profitable to process.
Major exports by Nepal with a full list of the top products exported by the country. Includes trade value in U.S. dollars and the percentage for each product category.
In the 1980s, oil exploration that was believed to be
in the lowlands began to be sought. But the result has
remained meager and the exploration has basically
The energy needs are met for the most part by
firewood, and partly by agricultural waste and animal
waste. The remainder is mainly covered by imported oil
and coal. Hydropower accounts for an almost negligible
proportion of the energy consumed. However, virtually
all electricity is generated from hydropower. However,
its own electricity generation is not enough.
Electricity must be imported from India. During the
2010s, Nepal has invested in solar energy, with projects
in Terai and Kathmandu Valley.
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The wood burning in the home is hazardous to health
and can eventually have devastating consequences for the
environment. Already, it is obvious that the tree
felling is causing problems. Aggravated annual floods in
India and Bangladesh can be partly explained by the loss
of vegetation on the Himalayan slopes in Nepal, among
others. Climate change also causes glaciers to melt,
which contributes to the floods.
Important agricultural land has also been lost due to
erosion (soil degradation). Tourism is also struggling
with the environment, both through debris and increased
access to firewood.
FACTS - ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy use per person
415 kilos of oil equivalent (2014)
Electricity consumption per person
140 kilowatt hours, kWh (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions in total
8 031 thousand tonnes (2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions per inhabitant
0.3 ton (2014)
The share of energy from renewable sources
85.3 percent (2015)
Big roll victory for the left
The left alliance between UML and CPN-MC wins the election to Parliament's
lower house with a good margin. UML receives a total of 121 seats, while NC is
the second largest with 63. Prachanda's CPN-MC receives 53 seats and 17 seats go
to Madhasian RJP-N. Federal Socialist Forum-Nepal, formed in June 2015 through a
party merger, gets 16 seats. Other mandates go to a number of small parties.
Elections are conducted in the south
The second and final round of the general elections is held, now in Kathmandu
and southern Nepal. The election campaign has been quite tense and at least one
person has been killed in election-related violence. In the capital, however, it
is very quiet as traffic has been stopped by the police for security reasons.
The first task of the new parishes is to give their province a name, select a
provincial capital and negotiate a budget with Kathmandu.
The first round of elections is held
The first of two rounds of elections to the federal parliament and the seven
provincial parliaments is conducted in calm forms. The northern provinces are up
for election, while the south and Kathmandu will vote on December 7. Dozens of
people are injured in sporadic election-related violence, likely perpetrated by
waste of the old Maoist guerrillas, but no casualties are reported.
Maoists and Communists form Valallians
The newly formed Maoist party CPN-MC and communist UML form an alliance for
the general elections in November / December. The alliance also includes another
small socialist party. The idea is to merge into a single communist party after
a possible electoral victory and thereby one forces against the Nepalese
Congress Party (NC).
Feminine discrimination practices become punishable
9th of August
Parliament makes it a criminal offense to compel women to practice the
tradition called chhaupadi, which means that a woman who is menstruating may not
live at home but is referred to sleeping in a shed at a distance from home. The
custom has its roots in the fact that women who have had menstruation or have
recently given birth are considered unclean. Chhaupadi was banned by the Supreme
Court more than ten years ago, but until now there has been no penalty for
anyone convicted of forcing a woman to follow chhaupadi. The law is to come into
force in a year and then anyone who repels a menstruating or newly-released
woman from home can be sentenced to three months imprisonment or a fine of the
equivalent of $ 30.
Local elections are held in the south
Local elections are being held in the southern parts of the country, despite
the newly formed Madhasian party Rastriya Janata Party-Nepal (RJP-N) boycotting
it. The Madheses believe that the new division of Nepal into seven provinces is
to their disadvantage. Three provinces already held elections in May. According
to election observers, turnout is around 70 percent. Only sporadic violence has
occurred before Election Day.
Transitional government is formed
Sher Bahadur Deuba of the Nepalese Congress Party (NC) is elected by
Parliament to lead a transitional government until the next parliamentary
The Prime Minister requests a farewell
24th of May
Pushpa Kamal Dahal announces that he is resigning as prime minister, but the
president is asking him to remain in office until parliament has appointed a
successor. According to an agreement between NC and UML, the leading positions
are to switch between the two parties until parliamentary elections are held.
First local elections in 20 years
For the first time in 20 years, local elections are held in three of the
country's seven provinces. That the elections can be carried out correctly and
peacefully is seen as a step in the peace and democracy process.
Nepal concludes agreement on new "Silk Road"
Nepal signs China's new infrastructure project Silk Road, covering 65
countries in Asia. When the project becomes a reality, 60 percent of the
world's population and around a third of the world's gross domestic product
(GDP) should be linked in a huge network of well-functioning country roads,
railways, electricity lines and more. The goal is to increase the global
influence of the Asian continent. The plans include linking Kathmandu to Lhasa
in Tibet. Critics of the new Silk Road say China's influence over smaller and
poorer Asian countries, such as Nepal, will increase significantly.
Madhesic parties are merged
Seven Madhasian parties come together in the National People's Party-Nepal
(RJP-N) under the leadership of Mahanta Thakur. The large Madhesi party
Loktantrik (Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum) merges with two other parties in Nepal's
democratic forum, with BK Gachhadar as chairman.
Madhesian alliance jumps off the government
The Madhasian Party Alliance The United Democratic Madhasian Front (UDMF)
leaves the government coalition. The UDMF joined the government in August 2016
on the condition that constitutional supplements were made so as to strengthen
the political representation of the Madhas. Since then, work on the constitution
has stalled. The UDMF has said it will interfere with the implementation of the
planned local elections in May, as the conflict over the border demarcation
between the provinces has not yet been resolved. UDMF's drop-out weakens the
government, which can, however, remain.
General strike against police violence
In protest against the police having shot five protesters a day earlier, a
general strike is being carried out in southern Nepal, where markets and
schools, among others, are kept closed and public communications are at a
Five protesters are shot by police
In troubled southern Nepal, the Marxist-Leninist party is hosting UML
demonstrations against the authorities announcing local elections in May. The
demonstrations end with the police firing sharply and five people being killed
and dozens injured.